This IUCN European Red List of terrestrial molluscs provides an assessment for the 2,480 species of terrestrial mollusc species known to be present in the European region at the start of 2019. Of these species, 11 are considered Not Applicable as they are not native to the European region. Overall, 21.8% of the 2,469 native species of terrestrial mollusc are considered threatened (species assessed as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable) in Europe, with 92% of these endemic to the European region.
A large number of species are threatened due to their restricted range and consequential high levels of extinction risk. Nearly one-third of all assessed species are impacted by natural system modifications, including the removal of banks and hedges, changes in fire management practices, quarrying, livestock grazing, wetland conversion and peat extraction, changes in land management practices, logging and other forest management, especially of oldgrowth forests. Loss of habitats through the conversion of land to residential and industrial use is common on the edges of urban areas and villages. Habitat loss can create additional threats to terrestrial molluscs by fragmenting forest habitats, and reducing habitat area and quality.
Neubert, E., Seddon, M.B., Allen, D.J., Arrébola, J., Backeljau, T., Balashov, I., Bank, R., Cameron, R., de Frias Martins, A.M., De Mattia, W., Dedov, I., Duda, M., Falkner, G., Falkner, M., Fehér, Z., Gargominy, O., Georgiev, D., Giusti, F., Gómez Moliner, B.J., Groh, K., Ibáñez, M., Kappes, H., Manganelli, G., MartínezOrtí, A., Nardi, G., Neiber, M.T., Páll-Gergely, B., Parmakelis, A., Prié, V., Reischütz, A., Reischütz, P.L., Rowson, B., Rüetschi, J., Slapnik, R., Son, M., Štamol, V., Teixeira, D., Triantis, K., Vardinoyannis, K., von Proschwitz, T. and Walther, F. 2019. European Red List of terrestrial molluscs. IUCN: Cambridge, UK and Brussels, Belgium. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/48439