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Countries and Regions used in the Red List

In Red List assessments, the Geographic Range is recorded using the countries of occurrence following the standard names of countries provided and maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division and the country names and codes maintained by the International Organization for Standardization ISO-3166-1 country codes standard.

Unless geographically very remote from each other, islands and other territories are included with the parent country. In the case of species that inhabit islands or territories significantly far from the parent country, the island or territory name is provided in parentheses; for example, "Spain (Canary Islands)". The naming of such islands or territories follows the second edition of the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (Brummitt et al. 2001) prepared for the Biodiversity Information Standards, also known as the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG).

The TDWG geographic system also provides a standard set of Basic Recording Units (BRU), which refer to sub-country units based on provinces or states.  Although the TDWG system is now out of date for some parts of the world, as there is no suitable alternative system available, the BRU's are used to subdivide very large countries (such as Australia, Brazil, China, South Africa, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, etc.) into smaller, more conveniently sized units for recording distributions. This system has been adopted for use by The IUCN Red List, and the units if recorded appear in parentheses after the parent country. While a number of taxa on the Red List, especially plants, have their distributions recorded down to BRU level, for many taxa, however, subcountry occurrence has not been comprehensively recorded. The main use of the BRU system is to record occurrence on islands or territories far from the parent country. Hence, users should be aware that if they use sub-country units under the Land Regions filter of the Advanced Search options to undertake searches, they will invariably obtain an incomplete list of species. Each country or territory has also been assigned to a single 'Land Region' to enable users to search by larger geographic areas. View the list of Countries by Regions.

Geopolitical events in recent years may have led to some inconsistency or errors in the distribution information provided. For example when South Sudan split from Sudan, species occurrence in these two countries had to be reviewed and updated, but errors may have occurred in assigning species to one or both countries. Adherence to the UN and ISO systems also creates some problems, as there is often a time lag between a political change and a new ISO code being allocated to the new country.

Reference:

Brummitt, R.K. (with assistance from Pando, F., Hollis, S., Brummitt, N.A. and others) 2001. World Geographic Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. Plant Taxonomic Database Standards No. 2, Edition 2. International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences (TDWG). Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Pittsburgh. Available at: http://www.tdwg.org/standards/109.



The two tables below show which countries or territories, following the ISO-3166 and UN list of countries, are assigned to each geographical region.

Table 1 shows which countries occur within each region and Table 2 is an alphabetical list of all the countries and territories with an indication of which region they have been assigned to. No country or territory is assigned to more than one region; as a result some sub-country units are assigned to geographical regions on the basis of their political governance even though they are physically located in a very different geographic region. For example, Clipperton Island is placed under Europe because it is directly governed by France, even though it is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, near to Mexico in the Mesoamerica Region. The delimitation of the geographical regions does not follow any particular system.

Note: The designation of geographical entities on this site, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or the IUCN Species Survival Commission concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

 

Table 1. Countries by Region

Africa

North Africa

 

Sub-Saharan Africa

Antarctica

 
Americas

Caribbean Islands

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

South America

Asia

East Asia

 

North Asia

 

South & Southeast Asia

 

West & Central Asia

Europe

 

Oceania

 


Africa
North Africa

Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
Western Sahara

Sub-Saharan Africa

Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Côte d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea [includes the islands of Annobón and Bioko]
Eritrea
Eswatini
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius [includes Rodrigues]
Mayotte
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Réunion
Rwanda
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles [includes the island of Aldabra]
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa [includes Marion and Prince Edward Islands]
South Sudan
Sudan
[For Swaziland see Eswatini]
Tanzania, United Republic of
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Antarctica

Bouvet Island
French Southern Territories [includes the Amsterdam-St Paul, Crozet, Kerguelen and Mozambique Channel island groups]
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Asia
East Asia

China
Hong Kong
Japan
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
Korea, Republic of
Macao
Mongolia
Taiwan, Province of China

North Asia

Belarus
Moldova, Republic of
Russian Federation
Ukraine

West & Central Asia

Afghanistan
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Cyprus
Georgia
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lebanon
Oman
Pakistan
Palestine, State of
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
United Arab Emirates
Uzbekistan
Yemen [includes the island of Socotra]

South & Southeast Asia

Bangladesh
Bhutan
British Indian Ocean Territory [includes the Chagos Archipelago]
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
Disputed Territory [includes the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands]
India [includes the Andaman, Laccadive and Nicobar island groups]
Indonesia
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Malaysia
Maldives
Myanmar
Nepal
Philippines
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Viet Nam

Europe

Åland Islands
Albania
Andorra
Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czechia [was Czech Republic]
Denmark
Estonia
Faroe Islands
Finland [excludes the Åland Islands]
France [includes Clipperton Island in the eastern Pacific Ocean]
Germany
Gibraltar
Greece
Greenland
Guernsey
Holy See (Vatican City State)
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Isle of Man
Italy
Jersey
Latvia
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Monaco
Montenegro
Netherlands
North Macedonia
Norway
Poland
Portugal [includes the Azores, Madeira and the Selvagens islands]
Romania
San Marino
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain [includes the Belearic and Canary islands and the Spanish North African Territories]
Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [excludes Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man]

Americas
North & Central America

Caribbean Islands

Anguilla
Antigua and Barbuda
Aruba
Bahamas
Barbados
Bermuda
Cayman Islands
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba
Cuba
Dominica
Curaçao
Dominican Republic
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Haiti
Jamaica
Martinique
Montserrat
Puerto Rico
Saint Bathélemy
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Martin (French Part)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sint Maarten (Dutch Part)
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
Virgin Islands, British
Virgin Islands, U.S.

Mesoamerica (or Central America)

Belize
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama

North America

Canada
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
United States of America

South America

Argentina
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile [includes Easter Island]
Colombia
Ecuador [includes the Galápagos islands]
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
French Guiana
Guyana
Paraguay
Peru
Suriname
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of

​​​​​​Oceania

American Samoa
Australia [includes the island groups of Ashmore-Cartier, Lord Howe and Macquarie]
Christmas Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cook Islands
Fiji
French Polynesia [includes the island groups of the Marquesas, Society, Tuamotu and Tubai]
Guam
Kiribati [includes the Gilbert, Kiribati Line and Phoenix island groups]
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Federated States of
Nauru
New Caledonia
New Zealand [includes the Antipodean, Chatham and Kermadec island groups]
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Palau
Papua New Guinea [includes the Bismarck Archipelago and the North Solomons]
Pitcairn
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Tokelau
Tonga
Tuvalu
United States Minor Outlying Islands [includes the Howland-Baker, Johnston, Midway, US Line and Wake island groups]
Vanuatu
Wallis and Futuna
 


Table 2. Alphabetical List of Countries (with an indication of which Region they have been allocated to)

Afghanistan – to West & Central Asia
Åland Islands – to Europe
Albania – to Europe
Algeria – to North Africa
American Samoa – to Oceania
Andorra – to Europe
Angola – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Anguilla – to Caribbean Islands
Antarctica – to Antarctic
Antigua and Barbuda – to Caribbean Islands
Argentina – to South America
Armenia – to West & Central Asia
Aruba – to Caribbean Islands
Australia [includes the island groups of Ashmore-Cartier, Lord Howe and Macquarie] – to Oceania
Austria – to Europe
Azerbaijan – to West & Central Asia
Bahamas – to Caribbean Islands
Bahrain – to West & Central Asia
Bangladesh – to South & South East Asia
Barbados – to Caribbean Islands
Belarus – to North Asia
Belgium – to Europe
Belize – to Mesoamerica
Benin – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Bermuda – to Caribbean Islands
Bhutan – to South & South East Asia
Bolivia, Plurinational State of – to South America
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba – to Caribbean Islands
Bosnia and Herzegovina – to Europe
Botswana – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Bouvet Island – to Antarctic
Brazil – to South America
British Indian Ocean Territory [includes the Chagos Archipelago] – to South & South East Asia
Brunei Darussalam – to South & South East Asia
Bulgaria – to Europe
Burkina Faso – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Burundi – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Cabo Verde – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Cambodia – to South & South East Asia
Cameroon – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Canada – to North America
Cayman Islands – to Caribbean Islands
Central African Republic – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Chad – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Chile [includes Easter Island] – to South America
China – to East Asia
Christmas Island – to Oceania
Clipperton Island – see under France
Cocos (Keeling) Islands – to Oceania
Colombia – to South America
Comoros – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Congo – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Congo, the Democratic Republic of the – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Cook Islands – to Oceania
Costa Rica – to Mesoamerica
Côte d'Ivoire – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Croatia – to Europe
Cuba – to Caribbean Islands
Curaçao – to Caribbean Islands
Cyprus – to West & Central Asia
Czechia – to Europe
Denmark – to Europe
Disputed Territory [includes the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands] – to South & South East Asia
Djibouti – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Dominica – to Caribbean Islands
Dominican Republic – to Caribbean Islands
Ecuador [includes the Galápagos islands] – to South America
Egypt – to North Africa
El Salvador – to Mesoamerica
Equatorial Guinea [includes the islands of Annobón and Bioko] – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Eritrea – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Estonia – to Europe
Eswatini – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Ethiopia – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – to South America
Faroe Islands – to Europe
Fiji – to Oceania
Finland [excludes the Åland Islands] – to Europe
France [includes Clipperton Island in the eastern Pacific Ocean] – to Europe
French Guiana – to South America
French Polynesia [includes the island groups of the Marquesas, Society, Tuamotu and Tubai] – to Oceania
French Southern Territories [includes the Amsterdam-St Paul, Crozet, Kerguelen and Mozambique Channel island groups] – to Antarctic
Gabon – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Gambia – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Georgia – to West & Central Asia
Germany – to Europe
Ghana – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Gibraltar – to Europe
Greece – to Europe
Greenland – to Europe
Grenada – to Caribbean Islands
Guadeloupe – to Caribbean Islands
Guam – to Oceania
Guatemala – to Mesoamerica
Guernsey – to Europe
Guinea – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Guinea-Bissau – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Guyana – to South America
Haiti – to Caribbean Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands – to Antarctic
Holy See (Vatican City State) – to Europe
Honduras – to Mesoamerica
Hong Kong – to East Asia
Hungary – to Europe
Iceland – to Europe
India [includes the Andaman, Laccadive and Nicobar island groups] – to South & South East Asia
Indonesia – to South & South East Asia
Iran, Islamic Republic of – to West & Central Asia
Iraq – to West & Central Asia
Ireland – to Europe
Isle of Man – to Europe
Israel – to West & Central Asia
Italy – to Europe
Jamaica – to Caribbean Islands
Japan – to East Asia
Jersey – to Europe
Jordan – to West & Central Asia
Kazakhstan – to West & Central Asia
Kenya – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Kiribati [includes the Gilbert, Kiribati Line and Phoenix island groups] – to Oceania
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of – to East Asia
Korea, Republic of – to East Asia
Kuwait – to West & Central Asia
Kyrgyzstan – to West & Central Asia
Lao People's Democratic Republic – to South & South East Asia
Latvia – to Europe
Lebanon – to West & Central Asia
Lesotho – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Liberia – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Libya – to North Africa
Liechtenstein – to Europe
Lithuania – to Europe
Luxembourg – to Europe
Macao – to East Asia
Madagascar – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Malawi – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Malaysia – to South & South East Asia
Maldives – to South & South East Asia
Mali – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Malta – to Europe
Marshall Islands – to Oceania
Martinique – to Caribbean Islands
Mauritania – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Mauritius [includes Rodrigues] – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Mayotte – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Mexico – to Mesoamerica
Micronesia, Federated States of – to Oceania
Moldova, Republic of – to North Asia
Monaco – to Europe
Mongolia – to East Asia
Montenegro – to Europe
Montserrat – to Caribbean Islands
Morocco – to North Africa
Mozambique – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Myanmar – to South & South East Asia
Namibia – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Nauru – to Oceania
Nepal – to South & South East Asia
Netherlands – to Europe
New Caledonia – to Oceania
New Zealand [includes the Antipodean, Chatham and Kermadec island groups] – to Oceania
Nicaragua – to Mesoamerica
Niger – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Nigeria – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Niue – to Oceania
Norfolk Island – to Oceania
North Macedonia – to Europe
Northern Mariana Islands – to Oceania
Norway – to Europe
Oman – to West & Central Asia
Pakistan – to West & Central Asia
Palau – to Oceania
Palestine, State of – to West & Central Asia
Panama – to Mesoamerica
Papua New Guinea [includes the Bismarck Archipelago and the North Solomons] – to Oceania
Paraguay – to South America
Peru – to South America
Philippines – to South & South East Asia
Pitcairn – to Oceania
Poland – to Europe
Portugal [includes the Azores, Madeira and the Selvagens islands] – to Europe
Puerto Rico – to Caribbean Islands
Qatar – to West & Central Asia
Réunion – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Romania – to Europe
Russian Federation – to North Asia
Rwanda – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Saint Bathélemy – to Caribbean Islands
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Saint Kitts and Nevis – to Caribbean Islands
Saint Lucia – to Caribbean Islands
Saint Martin (French Part) – to Caribbean Islands
Saint Pierre and Miquelon – to North America
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – to Caribbean Islands
Samoa – to Oceania
San Marino – to Europe
Sao Tome and Principe – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Saudi Arabia – to West & Central Asia
Senegal – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Serbia – to Europe
Seychelles [includes the island of Aldabra] – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Sierra Leone – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Singapore – to South & South East Asia
Sint Maarten (Dutch Part)
Slovakia – to Europe
Slovenia – to Europe
Solomon Islands – to Oceania
Somalia – to Sub-Saharan Africa
South Africa [includes Marion and Prince Edward Islands] – to Sub-Saharan Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands – to Antarctic
South Sudan – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Spain [includes the Belearic and Canary islands and the Spanish North African Territories] – to Europe
Sri Lanka – to South & South East Asia
Sudan – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Suriname – to South America
Svalbard and Jan Mayen – to Europe
Sweden – to Europe
Switzerland – to Europe
Syrian Arab Republic – to West & Central Asia
Taiwan, Province of China – to East Asia
Tajikistan – to West & Central Asia
Tanzania, United Republic of – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Thailand – to South & South East Asia
Timor-Leste – to South & South East Asia
Togo – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Tokelau – to Oceania
Tonga – to Oceania
Trinidad and Tobago – to Caribbean Islands
Tunisia – to North Africa
Turkey – to West & Central Asia
Turkmenistan – to West & Central Asia
Turks and Caicos Islands – to Caribbean Islands
Tuvalu – to Oceania
Uganda – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Ukraine – to North Asia
United Arab Emirates – to West & Central Asia
United Kingdom of Grat Britain and Northern Ireland [excludes Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man] – to Europe
United States of America – to North America
United States Minor Outlying Islands [includes the Howland-Baker, Johnston, Midway, US Line and Wake island groups] – to Oceania
Uruguay – to South America
Uzbekistan – to West & Central Asia
Vanuatu – to Oceania
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of – to South America
Viet Nam – to South & South East Asia
Virgin Islands, British – to Caribbean Islands
Virgin Islands, U.S. – to Caribbean Islands
Wallis and Futuna – to Oceania
Western Sahara – to North Africa
Yemen [includes the island of Socotra] – to West & Central Asia
Zambia – to Sub-Saharan Africa
Zimbabwe – to Sub-Saharan Africa

 


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