2011 Photo Gallery

The photographs presented here represent a selection of species from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2011) and were contributed from a range of sources including IUCN SSC Specialist Group members. If you wish to use any of these photographs, please contact the photographers directly to request their permission to do so. For a wider selection of threatened species imagery, please see ARKive (www.arkive.org), an online multi-media of the world's species.

 

Mammals

San Jose Brush Rabbit_Sylvilagus mansuetus

The San Jose Brush Rabbit (Sylvilagus mansuetus) has been uplisted from Near Threatened in 2008 to Critically Endangered in 2011. It is endemic to San José Island, Mexico, where it is restricted to areas characterized by a high richness of brush and trees species. Predation by feral cats, habitat loss due to competition with feral goats, illegal hunting and human developments have caused a decline in the population since 1995/1996. Photo © Arturo Carrillo Reyes/ CONABIO

Red Fruit Bat-Stenoderma rufum

The Red Fruit Bat (Stenoderma rufum) is known from Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. No specimens have been recorded on the US Virgin Islands in the past 30 years, and it is also considered to be uncommon on Puerto Rico. Hurricanes and human disturbance are the main threats to the Red Fruit Bat. Site management and further research on the population size, distribution, life history and threats are needed. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable. Photo © Allen Kurta

Przewalskis Horse_Equus ferus

Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus) has been downlisted from Critically Endangered to Endangered. It was considered as Extinct in the Wild from the 1960s up to the initial assessment in 1996. Thanks to a captive breeding programme combined with a successful reintroduction programme, a free-ranging wild population has been established back within its historic range in Mongolia. Hybridization with domestic horses, loss of genetic diversity and disease are the main threats to Przewalski's Horse. Photo © Patricia D. Moehlman

Red Crested Tree Rat_Santamartamys rufodorsalis

Restricted to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, the Red Crested Tree Rat (Santamartamys rufodorsalis) is listed as Critically Endangered. Recent information suggests that it inhabits a very small area and much of the forest in its potential range has been cleared or degraded. It is however, not known how well the Red Crested Tree Rat is able to survive in such degraded or disturbed forest. Research on the population size, distribution, life history, ecology and potential threats is needed. Photo © Lizzie Noble / Fundación ProAves www.proaves.org

European Mink_Mustela lutreola

Historically, the European Mink (Mustela lutreola) was fairly widespread across much of Europe. It is now restricted to small patches in northern Spain and western France, the Danube delta in Romania, the Ukraine and Russia. It is legally protected throughout its range, but it was heavily overexploited in the first half of the 20th century for the fur trade. Furthermore, habitat loss, hybridization with and local replacement by the introduced American Mink have contributed in the decline of the European Mink. It is listed as Critically Endagered. Photo © Tiit Maran

Southern White Rhino_Ceratotherium simum ssp. simum

The Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum ssp. simum) is listed as Near Threatened. Representing a major conservation success, the subspecies increased from a population of less than 100 at the end of the 19th century, to an estimated wild population of over 20,000 in 2010. Poaching efforts in South Africa and Zimbabwe have, however, increased and in the absence of conservation efforts this species could become threatened very quickly. In contrast, the Northern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum ssp. cottoni) is on the brink of extinction and is now listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild). The only known wild population in the Garamba National Park and surrounding areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo is thought to have gone extinct. Efforts to find the Northern White Rhino in the wild have been unsuccessful. Globally, the species Ceratotherium simum is currently assessed as Near Threatened. Photo © Dr Richard Emslie

Arabian Oryx_Oryx leucoryx

After the last wild individuals of the Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were killed in the early 1970s, a captive breeding program and protective legislation were established to bring the species back from the brink of extinction. Formerly occurring throughout most of the Arabian Peninsula, the Arabian Oryx has been reintroduced to five countries. The wild population currently numbers 1000 mature individuals. Illegal live capture for sale to private collections remains a constant threat, and poaching continues to threaten individuals who wander outside of release sites. Drought and overgrazing have affected habitat quality in places, limiting potential future release sites. Despite these issues, its relatively steady wild population growth qualifies the Arabian Oryx to be downlisted in 2011 from Endangered to Vulnerable. Photo © D Mallon/Antelope Specialist Group

Wallaces Tarsier_Tarsius wallacei

A newly discovered species, Wallace’s Tarsier (Tarsius wallacei) was described in 2010 from the Isthmus of Palu and from a small area southwest of Palu, Indonesia. The northern and southern populations are isolated from each other. Habitat loss and degradation due to conversion of rainforest to crash crop plantations are the main threats to Wallace’s Tarsier. Additional surveys and information on the population status are needed. This tarsier was assessed as Data Deficient. Photo © Stefan Merker/www.tarsier.de

Siau Island Tarsier_Tarsius tumpara

Endemic to Siau Island, Indonesia, the Siau Island Tarsier (Tarsius tumpara) was assessed as Critically Endangered. It is restricted to a very small area and there has been a suspected population decline of more than 80% in the past. It is locally collected as food. Furthermore, an active volcano, Mt. Karengentang, dominates more than half of its geographic range. The Siau Island Tarsier is considered to be one of the 25 most threatened primates by the IUCN Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group. Photo © Geoff Deehan

Northern Giant Mouse Lemur_Mirza zaza

The Northern Giant Mouse Lemur (Mirza zaza) is endemic to Madagascar, where it inhabits dry forests and the transition area to the more humid Sambirano area. It is restricted to a fairly small area in the northwestern part of the islands. While the major threats to the Northern Giant Mouse Lemur are unknown, dry forests are some of the fastest declining habitats on Madagascar. This lemur is able to survive in small forest fragments, and in 2011 it was assessed as Vulnerable. Due to an ongoing population decline it was uplisted to Endangered in 2014. Photo © Johanna Rode/Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation (www.bcsf.org.uk/bcsf)

Maned Three-toed Sloth_Bradypus torquatus

The Maned Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus torquatus) is restricted to the wet tropical forest on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. While it is generally not actively pursued, individuals might sometimes fall victim to subsistence hunting by local people. Furthermore, habitat loss and degradation, due to conversion of forest to pasture land, clearing for coal production and city sprawl, is ongoing in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The Maned Three-toed Sloth is legally protected in Brazil, but enforcement is often ineffective. This sloth is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © kevinschafer.com

Birds

Reptiles

Paroedura masobe

Endemic to Madagascar, Paroedura masobe is subject to active exploitation for the international pet trade, including both legal and illegal collections. The conversion of low elevation humid forest to farmland and timber extraction are major threats to this species’ habitat. Monitoring of the international pet trade and protection of the habitat are needed to ensure the survival of this Endangered species. Photo © Tony Gamble

Calumma tarzan

Calumma tarzan entered the IUCN Red List in 2011 as Critically Endangered. It is restricted to the lowland moist forests of Madagascar, parts of which are affected by slash-and-burn farming and selective logging. It is not known to occur within any of the existing protected areas, but it has been collected from a forest at Ambatofotsy, which is being established as a protected area. Photo © Jörn Köhler

Uroplatus malama

Uroplatus malama is a leaf-tailed gecko endemic to southeastern Madagascar. It is likely to be attractive to collectors and small collection quotas have been issued in the past by Malagasy authorities. This gecko relies on relatively intact forest for survival and forest clearance for rice cultivation is a threat to its habitat. Protection and management of the area and the habitat where this Vulnerable species occurs are required. Photo © Fano Ratsoavina

Xenotyphlops grandidieri

Xenotyphlops grandidieriis known form a single site at Baie de Sakalava, in northern Madagascar. It is a burrowing snake that has been found in forested and shrubby dunes. Deforestation for charcoal production and development of mining (e.g., for sand) are threats to its habitat. Protection of its dune habitat is needed as a matter of urgency to limit the impacts of human activities on this Critically Endangered snake. Photo © Frank Glaw

Peters Bright Snake_Liophidium mayottensis

Peters' Bright Snake (Liophidium mayottensis) is endemic to Mayotte, where it is found in natural forests and in plantations. Many forest areas on the island are degraded and the suitable habitat of this species is heavily fragmented. The Small Indian Civet, an introduced carnivore, probably also feeds on this snake. Peters’ Bright Snake is therefore classified as Endangered. Photo © Frank Glaw

Island Day Gecko_Phelsuma nigristriata

Endemic to Mayotte, the Island Day Gecko (Phelsuma nigristriata) has been almost exclusively observed in pristine humid forest at 100 m asl or above. Most remaining forest areas on the island are protected, but it is plausible that ongoing degradation of pristine forest will soon extend to the altitudes where this species occurs. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Oliver Hawlitschek

Motagua Spiny-tailed Iguana_Ctenosaura palearis

Endemic to eastern Guatemala, the Motagua Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura palearis) is threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and the increased mortality of cacti (their main food and shelter source), illegal trade and overharvesting. It is included on CITES Appendix II and all sales of this iguana outside of Guatemala are illegal as no exportation permits have been issued by the government to date. The illegal trade (mainly sold to Greece, Germany and the USA) is thought to be the main cause of local declines of iguanas in some localities. It is currently listed as Endangered. Photo © Daniel Ariano

Bog Turtle_Glyptemys muhlenbergii

The Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) is endemic to the eastern USA, where a great part of its suitable habitat has been lost. It was recently uplisted from Endangered to Critically Endangered as it is likely that the overall population reduction exceeds 80%. The Bog Turtle is fully protected throughout its range, however it remains in small but high demand in the pet trade due to its small size, attractive colouration and reputed rarity. Key conservation measures require focus on protecting the remaining habitat from destruction, degradation, pollution and conversion, and appropriate management with regard to vegetation succession and invasives to prevent further fragmentation of the population. Photo © Jonathan Mays

Wood Turtle_Glyptemys insculpta

Endemic to North America, the Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) was recently uplisted from Vulnerable to Endangered. It is valued as a pet and while it is protected in most of its range, illegal trade in wild-collected and captive-bred individuals still occurs. Predation by racoons and habitat destruction and degradation due to residential and recreational developments are additional threats to this species. It is therefore likely that the past and ongoing population decline exceeds 50%. Photo © James Harding, Michigan State University

Eastern Box Turtle_Terrapene carolina

The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina) is native to Canada, the USA and Mexico. It was uplisted from Low Risk/ Near Threatened to Vulnerable as the population decline probably exceeds 30%. The causes for this decline are not fully understood but comprise a mixture of habitat destruction and degradation, direct mortality from vehicle strikes, predation and collection for the pet trade. The Eastern Box Turtle is included in CITES Appendix II and is subject to a variety of State legislation and regulations in Canada and the United States. Photo © Jonathan Mays

Anolis pogus

Found only on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, Anolis pogus is presently confined to ravines in the interior uplands of the island. It previously also occurred on Anguilla island, where it is now apparently extinct. Once described as locally abundant, little is known about the population today. Its extinction on Anguilla is believed to be the result of introduced mammalian predators and habitat loss and degradation. Research and monitoring are needed to determine the current threats and ensure future stability of this Vulnerable lizard. Photo © Robert Powell

Proboscis Anole_Anolis proboscis

The Proboscis Anole (Anolis proboscis) is endemic to the western slopes of the Andes in Pichincha, Ecuador. It is named for its proboscis, an appendage extending from its snout, which is used in courtship. Habitat loss due to logging, grazing and other human pressures, is the main threat to this Endangered species. It is likely that these are causing a decline in the population. Research and monitoring of population trends are therefore recommended. Photo © Jonathan Losos

Flap-necked Chameleon_Chamaeleo dilepis

The Flap-necked Chameleon (Chamaeleo dilepis) is widely distributed and relatively abundant across southern and eastern Africa. It is collected for the international pet trade with the greatest demand coming from the USA. There are currently no observable effects of removal of individuals in the wild. It is listed as Least Concern, but careful attention should be paid to detect early warning signs of population decline. The Flap-necked Chameleon is listed under Appendix II of CITES. Photo © Krystal A. Tolley

Spiny-flanked Chameleon_Trioceros laterispinis

The Spiny-flanked Chameleon (Trioceros laterispinis) is endemic to Tanzania, where it is only known from the Eastern Arc Mountains. It is collected for the international pet trade, but at fairly low numbers (49 individuals between 2003 and 2008). The main threats to the Spiny-flanked Chameleon are habitat loss and degradation due to conversion of its forest habitat to agricultural and plantation land. It is included in CITES Appendix II. It is currently listed as Vulnerable and conservation measures are required to prevent further habitat loss. Photo © Krystal A. Tolley

Northern Pale-hipped Skink_Celatiscincus similis

The Northern Pale-hipped Skink (Celatiscincus similis) is endemic to the Province Nord, New Caledonia, where it inhabits closed forests at both low and high elevations. Habitat loss due to expanding nickel mines (especially on the Taom massif), agriculture and wild fires, is the main threat to this skink. Furthermore, there is ongoing habitat degradation and increasing predation pressure from introduced mammals, such as deer, pigs and cats. The Northern Pale-hipped Skink is therefore listed as Endangered. It is legally protected in both the Province Nord and Province Sud. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Gracile Burrowing Skink_Graciliscincus shonae

Endemic to Province Sud in New Caledonia, the Gracile Burrowing Skink (Graciliscincus shonae) is listed as Vulnerable. This uncommon species is legally protected in Province Sud and Province Nord, and it is found in several small reserves. However, loss and fragmentation of habitat from clearance of closed forests (particularly by the rapidly expanding mining industry in the Grand Sud and Tontouta Valley area) and from wildfires in maquis shrublands are major threats to the Gracile Burrowing Skink. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Eurydactylodes occidentalis

Eurydactylodes occidentalis is a New Caledonian endemic which is restricted to sclerophyll forest and closed mesophyll forest on the central west coast of Grand Terre. The lowlands of this area have almost been totally denuded by conversion to pastoral farmland and only small isolated patches of suitable habitat remain. Eurydactylodes occidentalis is legally protected, but its distinctive chameleon-like appearance and diurnal activity make it a potential target for illegal collection and trafficking. It has been assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Crested Gecko_Rhacodactylus ciliatus

The Crested Gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) has a restricted distribution and only occurs in Grand Terre and Ile des Pins, New Caledonia. This nocturnal gecko has been assessed as Vulnerable. The main threat within its range is habitat loss associated with logging, wildfires and the clearance of forests for agriculture. Predation by rodents and the impact of the introduced ant Wasmannia auropunctata are other potential threats to the Crested Gecko. Monitoring of the current population and measures to control impacts of invasive species are needed. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Amphibians

Blessed Poison Frog_Ranitomeya benedicta

The Blessed Poison Frog (Ranitomeya benedicta) is distributed throughout the lowland forests of Pampas del Sacramento, in San Martín and Loreto Regions in northeastern Peru. Subsistence farming, logging and agroindustry will reduce the amount of suitable habitat substantially over the coming years. Harvesting (both legal and illegal) for the international pet trade is another threat to this Vulnerable species. The Blessed Poison Frog was smuggled for the international pet trade in 2007 and 2008 and legally exported in 2009. Photo © Jason L. Brown

Summers’ Poison Frog_Ranitomeya summersi

Summers’ Poison Frog (Ranitomeya summersi) is known from the central Huallaga Canyon and surrounding semiarid valleys in northern Peru. Legal export of this species began in 2001, however the majority of individuals found in the pet trade are of illegal origin. Habitat loss is another threat to this Endangered frog. Encroachment of small-holder farms and agroindustry are causing rapid deforestation and much of its habitat is in close proximity to human settlements. Photo © Jason L. Brown

Dendrotriton chujorum

Dendrotriton chujorum is restricted to three sites in the northern region of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala. It generally inhabits mountain slopes covered by small remnants of primarily hardwood (pine-oak) forest. This habitat has been degraded due to small-holder farming and timber and firewood harvest by local people. Preservation of the only known remaining habitat is a priority for this Critically Endangered salamander's conservation. Photo © Todd Pierson

Atelopus patazensis

Atelopus patazensis is known only form the type locality in northwestern Peru, at an elevation of ca 2,500-3,000 m asl. A drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last ten years, has been inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population. Only two individuals of this species were located in extensive surveys in 2010. This decline in Atelopus patazensis might be due to chytridiomycosis and/or a combination of mining activities and the chytrid fungus. More research on this Critically Endangered species’ population status, natural history and threats are urgently needed to ensure that proper conservation measures can be put in place. Photo © Alessandro Catenazzi (http://sites.google.com/site/acatenazzi/)

Sri Lanka Petite Shrub-frog_Pseudophilautus tanu

Endemic to Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Petite Shrub-frog (Pseudophilautus tanu) is listed as Endangered. This is thought to be a common frog that is restricted to forest-edges. It is currently only known from two areas, which are under constant pressure from human activities such as encroachment by tea growers and urban development, as well as the usage of biocides and fertilizers. It is likely that the Sri Lanka Petite Shrub-frog is more widespread in other open habitats close to patches of rainforest. More research on its actual distribution, population status and potential threats is needed. Photo © Milivoje Krvavac, Department of Biology and Ecology,UNS

Green Eyed Bushfrog_Raorchestes chlorosomma

The Green Eyed Bushfrog (Raorchestes chlorosomma) is only known from Munnar, Kerala, within the Western Ghats mountain range in India. The area where it occurs has been highly degraded due to large-scale tea, eucalyptus and wattle plantations. While the Green Eyed Bushfrog appears to be adaptable, its tolerance threshold to habitat disturbance is not fully understood. More research on its distribution, population status, natural history and threats is needed. It was assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © S.D. Biju

Resplendent Shrubfrog_Raorchestes resplendens

Endemic to Kerala, India, the Resplendent Shrubfrog (Raorchestes resplendens) is restricted to a very small area on the Anamudi summit. The population consists of less than 300 individuals and is thought to be declining. However, the cause for the observed declines remains unknown. The Resplendent Shrubfrog occurs in a highly protected national park, where no observable threats have been recorded. More research on the threats, population and natural history of this Critically Endangered frog are urgently needed. Photo © S.D. Biju

Fishes

Reef Manta Ray_Manta alfredi

The Reef Manta Ray (Manta alfredi) has a circumtropical and sub-tropical distribution, existing in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Within this broad range, however, actual populations appear to be sparsely distributed and highly fragmented. The main threat is fishing, whether targeted or incidental. The meat is often sold as food, the liver for local medicine and oil, and branchial filter plates (gill rakers) fetch high prices in Asia and are used for Chinese medicinal products. Aside from directed fisheries, manta rays are also incidentally caught as bycatch in both large-scale fisheries and small netting programs. Reef Manta Rays are often caught and transported to aquariums for use in display tanks. The Reef Manta Ray is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Andrea Marshall

Giant Manta Ray_Manta birostris

The largest living ray, the Giant Manta Ray (Manta birostris), has a wide range in tropical and semi-tropical shelf waters throughout the world’s major oceans. Within its broad range populations are sparsely distributed and highly fragmented. The Giant Manta Ray has a high value in international trade and directed fisheries exist that target this species. Artisanal fisheries also exist that target this Vulnerable species for food and medicine. Photo © Andrea Marshall

Blue Marlin_Makaira nigricans

The Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans) is often found in wide open blue waters in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. It is commonly caught as bycatch in longline fisheries and there is also a direct recreational catch in many areas. It is not considered to be well managed in any parts of its range and protection efforts have continued to decrease in recent years as deeper longline gear is introduced. The Blue Marlin is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Russell Nelson

Southern Bluefin Tuna_Thunnus maccoyii

Found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, the Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) has been intensively fished since the early 1950s. This species is an important commercial species, especially off Australia; the meat is highly prized for the sashimi markets of Japan. Estimated spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding, leading to a listing as Critically Endangered. Implementation of effective conservation and management measures are urgently needed. Photo © Ian Gordon Auscape International

Knipowitschia mrakovcici

Knipowitschia mrakovcici is only found in Lake Visovac, Croatia. The population is experiencing a massif decline, but the reasons for this decline are not fully understood. Pollution from nearby towns is a potential threat. This freshwater fish is currently listed as Critically Endangered. There is ongoing research to determine the causes of the population decline. Photo © Jörg Freyhof

Sea Trout_Salmo trutta

The Sea Trout (Salmo trutta) is commonly harvested for human consumption and for sport fishing. This freshwater fish is widespread across much of Europe and has been introduced to North and South America, Africa, parts of Asia, New Zealand and Australia. Localized threats include water pollution and impacts from salmon farming. It was assessed a Least Concern. Photo © Andreas Hartl

Pacific Hagfish_Eptatretus stoutii

Endemic to the northeastern Pacific, the Pacific Hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) was assessed as Data Deficient. It is heavily targeted in at least half of its range for the Asian leather market. No conservation measures are in place, but regulations to manage fishing efforts are in the process of being implemented. Photo © Kevin Lee

Broadgilled Hagfish_Eptatretus cirrhatus

The Broadgilled Hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus) is found from shallow to deep waters of Australia and New Zealand. It is the most common hagfish species in this region and can be locally abundant. The range of this Least Concern species could be larger than the currently known. No major threats seem to be affecting the Broadgilled Hagfish. Photo © Paddy Ryan/Ryan Photographic

Invertebrates

Cloud Copper_Aloeides nubilus

The Cloud Copper (Aloeides nubilus) is known from only a few small colonies in Mpumulanga Province, South Africa. Plantation forestry and encroachment of the invasive tree species Acacia mearnsii have caused declines in the habitat of this rare and extremely localized butterfly, in turn leading to population declines. These threats will likely cause further population declines into the future. The species is classified as Endangered. Photo © G.A. Henning

Spenglers Freshwater Mussel_Margaritifera auricularia

Originally widespread throughout Europe, today Spengler's Freshwater Mussel (Margaritifera auricularia) is only found in France and Spain. This species has declined by more than 90% over the past century, due to direct exploitation for the nacre in its shell (used for knife hilts and buttons) and extensive modification of the slow-flowing large rivers where these mussels live. Dams are particularly damaging, causing water siltation and preventing migration of the host fish this species depends on during its early life stages. Reproduction is nearly non-existent, such that most subpopulations of this Critically Endangered mussel will likely disappear in the next 20-50 years. More time is required to confirm if existing conservation efforts are effective. Photo © Vincent Prié

Plicate Rocksnail_Leptoxis plicata

The freshwater Plicate Rocksnail (Leptoxis plicata) was once distributed in several rivers in the state of Alabama, United States. Only one population remains, restricted to a short reach of the Black Warrior River. The dramatic 90% reduction in this snail's distribution was caused by extensive habitat modification resulting from multiple human activities; a proposed impoundment would bisect the only remaining population. A recovery plan has been drafted and captive breeding of this Critically Endangered snail has shown some success; further reintroductions and habitat protection are necessary. Photo © Thomas Tarpley/Alabama Aquatic Biodiversity Center

Violet-spotted Reef Lobster_Enoplometopus debelius

Endemic to the western Pacific, the Violet-spotted Reef Lobster (Enoplometopus debelius) is a very popular and highly prized species in the aquarium trade. Specimens are collected in the wild (mainly in Indonesia) and are sold for $25 USD. No regulations to manage the collection of wild specimens are in place and it is unknown if harvesting has any significant effects on this species’ population. The Violet-spotted Reef Lobster is therefore listed as Data Deficient. Further research is urgently needed to establish its current population size and to determine the effects of harvesting on its population. Photo © Gary Bell/OceanwideImages.com

Mediterranean Slipper Lobster_Scyllarides latus

The Mediterranean Slipper Lobster (Scyllarides latus) is found throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea and in the central eastern Atlantic Ocean. It has become rare along the European coast and in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of intensive harvesting; in some areas, such as Italy and the Azores, it may be too late for the species to successfully recover. Fortunately, it is still common in the eastern Mediterranean and benefits from some conservation legislation aimed to prevent further declines. More precise data on the status of stocks are needed before an accurate assessment of this Data Deficient species can be made. Photo © Dominique Horst

Banded Spiny Lobster_Panulirus marginatus

Endemic to Hawaii, the Banded Spiny Lobster (Panulirus marginatus) generally occurs under rocks and crevices on rocky bottom in shallow waters. It was threatened by overharvesting in the past throughout its range, where declines of over 80% in catch per unit effort data have been recorded (mid 1970s to 1999). However, the Banded Spiny Lobster fishery was closed in 2000 and it now also occurs in a protected area. The current status of the population is unknown and it is therefore listed as Data Deficient. Photo © Keoki Stender

Chapa_Iberus gualtieranus

Endemic to mainland Spain, the Chapa (Iberus gualtieranus) generally inhabits limestone mountain areas of rocky substrate and sun exposure sub-desert environments with sparse vegetation. Irrational and uncontrolled catches made in recent decades are derived from its great gastronomic appreciation. Intrinsic factors, such as poor recruitment and population reproduction, and habitat loss due to highway construction and fires, are additional threats to the Chapa. Appropriate management of catches and reinforcement of populations with captive bred individuals are recommended. The Chapa was assessed as Endangered. Photo © Original: http://commons.wikimedia.org

Leptaxis minor

Endemic to the Pico Alto complex on Santa Maria Island, Azores, Leptaxis minor has been assessed as Endangered. It is relatively uncommon and restricted, but it has adapted to secondary forests as a habitat. Pico Alto is a protected are, however the secondary forest is likely to be cut down. At lower altitudes, cattle is let to enter the forest thus destroying much of the forest by grazing and trampling. Monitoring of the habitat is needed. Photo © Antonio Manuel de Frias Martins

Moreletina horripila

Moreletina horripila is found on São Miguel, Terceira, São Jorge, Pico and Faial islands, Azores. It inhabits drier areas of secondary forests, where is can be commonly found under leaves, logs and loose stones. It is considered abundant on São Miguel and no major threats exist that are likely to affect this snail across its range. Moreletina horripila has therefore been assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Antonio Manuel de Frias Martins

Suboestophora hispanica

Endemic to the Spanish provinces of Alicante and Valencia, Suboestophora hispanica was uplisted from Low Risk/ Near Threatened to Vulnerable. Its habitat, pine and evergreen oak forest and Mediterranean shrubs, is threatened by fires and urban expansion (mainly housing). Furthermore, Suboestophora hispanica is also collected for shell specimens. Measures to protect the habitat and its population need to be put in place. Photo © Alberto Martínez-Ortí

Helix pomatia

Perhaps the best known and most often cultivated land snail species, Helix pomatia is widespread in central and eastern Europe, and locally abundant. A popular source of food throughout Europe, it is heavily targeted for human consumption. Fortunately, its extensive cultivation floods the market with farm-raised specimens, reducing the impact of collections in the wild. Wild populations are currently considered to be stable, leading this species to be assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Jangle1969, "Weinbergschnecke Paarung.jpg" via Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Plants

Onion Plant_Crinum thaianum

Endemic to southern Thailand, the Water Onion (Crinum thaianum) is confined to isolated patches on a few rivers and streams. Land use changes have caused dramatic changes to the ecology of the rivers where this species is found. Dredging for the removal of sediment and rock for construction and land reclamation purposes, along with diversion of the rivers and streams for agricultural purposes, have left the population very fragmented and declining. The Water Onion is also popular with aquarists as it is easy to maintain, and the bulb is used to produce a cream for softening the skin. Recent local conservation efforts will hopefully help improve the status of this Endangered plant. Photo © Somsak Soonthornnawapha

Coco de mer_Lodoicea maldivica

The Coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica) is endemic to Praslin and Curieuse islands, Seychelles.  It produces the largest seed of any plant in the world, weighing up to 30 kg. It was used as a medicinal plant in the past (it was believed to possess aphrodisiac powers) and the highly-prized seeds are still sold as souvenirs to tourists. Kernels are frequently harvested illegally and current harvesting levels are thought to be unsustainable. Fires, introduced taxa (e.g. invasive plants, pathogens and parasites) and infrastructure development are additional threats to the Coco de mer. It has therefore been assessed as Endangered. Photo © Peter Wyse Jackson

Balfours Pandanus_Pandanus balfourii

The Balfour’s Pandanus (Pandanus balfourii) is endemic to the coastal areas of the granitic islands of the Seychelles. It used to be one of the dominant species, but some of its habitat in the coastal areas has been destroyed due to human development such as settlements and tourism. Is has been assessed as Vulnerable. Photo © Justin Gerlach

Chinese Water Fir

Formerly widespread in China, Viet Nam and Lao PDR, most of the natural Chinese Water Fir (Glyptostrobus pensilis) plants in China and Viet Nam have been killed due to expanding agriculture; logging, construction of fish ponds and clearing for food crops are secondary threats. No wild plants are known to remain in China, though hope remains that a few individuals may still survive. The remaining subpopulations in Viet Nam and Lao PDR are small, and very few (if any) trees are producing viable seed; the majority of trees in Viet Nam are in decline. Given current trends this Critically Endangered species could well become Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) in the near future. Photo © Phan Ke Loc

Wollemi Pine_Wollemia nobilis

The Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) was discovered in 1994 and is the only species in the genus, which had previously only been known from the fossil record dating back to the Cretaceaous. It is only found in Wollemi National Park in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia. Exotic pathogens such as Phytophthora cinnamonii, the introduction of exotic weeds, trampling and other forms of disturbance associated with unauthorised access are threats to the Wollemi Pine. It continues to be assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Craig Hilton-Taylor

Goodyera macrophylla

Very local and extremely rare, Goodyera macrophylla is endemic to a few ravines in central and northern parts of Madeira, Portugal. The population is estimated to total less than 50 mature individuals. The main threats to this orchid are trampling, collapse of terrain, landslides and invasion by a species; it could also be affected by tourism and plant collection. Fortunately, the species is protected under a number of European and international conservation Conventions, and its habitat is protected in the Natural Park of Madeira. Although the population is currently considered stable, this orchid’s tiny population size has led to a listing as Critically Endangered. Photo © Francisco Fernandes

Snowdrop_Galanthus nivalis

The Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) has an extensive distribution across much of Europe. However, due to widespread naturalisation there is some uncertainty concerning its natural distribution. International trade is restricted by CITES, but at a locale scale the Snowdrop is still harvested for a range of uses, for example, as an ornamental plant, as medication or as poison. Although the Snowdrop has a wide distribution, it is listed as Near Threatened due to the fact that it seems to be locally threatened across much of its range. Photo © R. Wilford

Pico de El Sauzal_Lotus maculatus

Pico de El Sauzal (Lotus maculatus) is endemic to the island of Tenerife, the Canary Islands, Spain. It has been estimated that less than 50 individuals of this species remain. The main threats are trampling, collection, predation, and other human generated impacts. Grazing was the main threat in the past almost leading to its extinction, but it is reported to be eradicated from the known location. It was assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © A. Santos

Centranthe À Trois Nervures_Centranthus trinervis

The Centranthe À Trois Nervures (Centranthus trinervis) is endemic to Corsica and the remaining populations consist of only 140 individuals. In 1994, a fire destroyed approximately 80% of the population, but it regenerated afterwards. The Centranthe À Trois Nervures has been dowlisted from Critically Endangered to Endangered. It is now protected at a regional, national and international level, however, due to its restricted range and small population size, a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors could cause a rapid decline, potentially even leading to the extinction of the species. Photo © Antonie van den Bos for aycronto.com

Trevo de Quatro Folhas_Marsilea batardae

Endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, the Trevo de Quatro Folhas (Marsilea batardae) is an Endangered freshwater plant. It grows in temporarily flooded areas, such as the banks of streams, at low altitudes. The main threats to this plant are the destruction and degradation of standing water bodies, and the modification of hydrological networks, such as the construction of dams. For example, the construction of the Alqueva dam in Portugal has caused the destruction of five known populations. Photo © Richard Lansdown

Beta nana

Beta nana is endemic to the mountains of southern and central Greece. This Vulnerable plant is restricted to a very small area (less than 1 km2) at fairly high altitudes. Overgrazing and rising temperatures due to climate changes are thought to be the main threats to B. nana. It is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. However, active in situ conservation, including population and habitat monitoring, is needed to ensure the survival of this species. Photo © Dr. Lothar Frese