Gazella bilkis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Gazella bilkis
Species Authority: Groves & Lay, 1985
Common Name(s):
English Queen Of Sheba's Gazelle, Yemen Gazelle
French Gazelle Du Yemen
Spanish Gacela De Yemen
Taxonomic Notes: Some authors have considered this species as a subspecies of G. arabica (Groves 1996; Grubb 2005), although there is also some doubt over the taxonomic status of G. arabica. Current genetic research at King Khaled Wildlife Research Centre, Saudi Arabia, raises some doubts about the validity of the specific status of G. bilkis. Regardless, there is no doubt that the population originally described as G. bilkis is certainly now extinct, regardless of whether it was a species or a subspecies.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Participants at the 4th International Conservation Workshop for the Threatened Fauna of Arabia
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
The taxon is known only from five specimens collected in 1951 in the mountains near Ta’izz, where it was reportedly common at the time. There have been no subsequent specimens, sightings or reports, and the species is now considered Extinct.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Extinct (EX)
2000 Extinct (EX)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species was described on the basis of five specimens collected in 1951 in mountains near Ta’izz. Localities included Wadi Maleh, Usaifira, and Jabal Zarba (Groves and Lay 1985; Greth et al. 1993).
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population was described as very common in 1951, but there have been no records since the 1950s and the species is now believed extinct (Mallon and Al Safadi 2001). During surveys conducted in 1992 in the mountains south of Ta'izz, local people reported that gazelles had not been seen in the area for several decades (Greth et al. 1993).
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Seen in small groups of 1-3 on Euphorbia-covered hillsides at altitudes of 1,230 - 2,150 m; not seen in cultivated areas or near roads (Sanborn and Hoogstraal 1953).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species was hunted for food by army officers in 1951 (Sanborn and Hoogstraal 1953); there is no other information available.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Extinct.

Classifications [top]

8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

Greth, A., Williamson, D., Groves, C., Schwede, G. and Vassart, M. 1993. Bilkis gazelle in Yemen - status and taxonomic relationships. Oryx 27: 239-244.

Groves, C. P. and Lay, D. M. 1985. A new species of the genus Gazella (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from the Arabian Peninsula. Mammalia 49: 27-36.

Mallon, D. P. and Al-Safadi, M. 2001. Yemen. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Anteloepes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, pp. 63-68. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Mallon, D. P. and Kingswood, S. C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Sanborn, C. C. and Hoogstraal, H. 1953. Some mammals of Yemen and their ectoparasites. Fieldiana: Zoology 34: 229-252.

Citation: Participants at the 4th International Conservation Workshop for the Threatened Fauna of Arabia. 2008. Gazella bilkis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T8987A12947182. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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