Nanger granti 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Nanger granti (Brooke, 1872)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Grant's Gazelle
French Gazelle de Grant
Gazella granti Brooke, 1872
Nanger notata (Thomas, 1897)
Nanger petersii (Günther, 1884)
Taxonomic Notes: Siegismund et al. (2013) treated Grant's Gazelle as a superspecies comprising three distinct and broadly allopatric species, based on the level of genetic differentiation among them (see Lorenzen et al. 2008). These are Grant's Gazelle (Nanger (granti) granti), Bright's Gazelle (Nanger (granti) notata) and Peter's Gazelle (Nanger (granti) petersii). A number of subspecies have been proposed, e.g., N. (g.) g. granti and N. (g.) g. robertsi, however the data are inconclusive and the subspecies are not well authenticated (Lorenzen et al. 2008; Siegismund et al. 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-04-20
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M.
Remains widespread within its range in East Africa. Total numbers are estimated at 140,000, with about 30% occurring in protected areas. Only about 25% of the population is considered stable or increasing and the rest declining. If this downward trend continues, then it is only a matter of time before the species becomes Near Threatened. Peter's Gazelle is of particular cause for concern as it has the lowest population size (<15,000) and is declining, with its range inadequately covered by protected areas.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Grant's Gazelle species complex inhabits the Somali-Masai Arid Zone, from South Sudan and Ethiopia to central Tanzania; and from the Kenya/Somali coast to Lake Victoria (East 1999, Siegismund et al. 2013). The ranges of the three subspecies are as follows (following Kingdon 1997, East 1999 and Siegismund et al. 2013):

N. (g.) granti (Grant's Gazelle) is distributed from the north bank of the Ruaha River in central Tanzania to Kenya south of Lake Baringo and Mt Kenya, and from Lake Victoria in the west to Voi River in Tsavo in the east.
N. (g.) notata (Bright's Gazelle) is distributed from north-east Uganda to southern Somalia with a range that surrounds Lake Turkana and extends across the very arid regions of northern Kenya. A belt of uplands and forest is thought to have separated Grant's Gazelle from Bright's Gazelle. 
N. (g.) petersii (Peter's or Tana Gazelle) is distributed in eastern Kenya from the lower Tana valley to west of the Juba River in Somalia. This species has recently extended its range to most of Tsavo East National Park in Kenya.
Countries occurrence:
Ethiopia; Kenya; Somalia; South Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Recent population estimates are available for most of the species' current range, mainly from aerial surveys. Summation of these estimates gives a total of about 140,000, but this is probably an underestimate of the total numbers because of undercounting in aerial surveys and the lack of population estimates for some areas. Population trend is downward, with some exceptions such as Sibiloi and Marsabit National Parks and some of Kenya’s northern rangeland districts, Laikipia, Masai Mara National Reserve, Amboseli, Serengeti, Tarangire and Mkomazi. The largest population of Grant's Gazelles (sensu stricto) occupies the Serengeti ecosystem with an estimated 35,000-55,000, with 4,300 in the Tarangire area in 2011 (Foley et al. 2014). Although a number of the populations have experienced declines the population size of this subspecies probably exceeds 75,000 (Siegismund et al. 2013).

Total population size of Bright's Gazelle is in the order of about 50,000 animals, with the majority in Kenya (ca. 40,000; Butynski et al. 1997), followed by Ethiopia (ca. 6000; Schloeder et al. 1997; East 1999) and southern Sudan (ca. 2,500 in Boma National Park; Fay et al. 2007). Although in the 1970s and 1980s surveys estimated a population of ca. 15,000 Bright's Gazelle in southern Sudan (Siegismund et al. 2013), with little information on this area since.

The total population size of Peter's Gazelle is less than 15,000, with an estimated 12,000 in the rangelands of Wajir, Garissa and Tana River (Butynski et al. 1997) and the rest in Tsavo, south Kitui, Ngai-Ndeithia and protected areas (Siegismund et al. 2013).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The habitat of all subpecies encompasses subdesert, lowland thorn bush, savanna woodland, open plains, and montane grassland up to 2,500 m. Grant's Gazelle inhabits open, dry plains and open savannas, including some high, cool uplands. Its habitat is typified by the plains and savannas of Serengeti National Park (Siegismund et al. 2013). Capitalizing on its water-independence, Grant's Gazelle makes a living in areas beyond the reach of herbivores that need to drink. Some even migrate to short-grass plains in the dry season and the savanna woodland during rains - opposite to the main migration. But large herds also share wet-season range and mix with the more numerous Thomson's Gazelle (Estes 1991). A large part of the range of Bright's Gazelle is very dry, but it periodically inhabits cool upland savannas and semi-deserts. In more south-eastern parts it tolerates more wooded country than the other species (Siegismund et al. 2013). Peter's Gazelle is essentially a lowland species and in the Tana River delta lives on very flat plains that are periodically flooded (Siegismund et al. 2013).
Generation Length (years):4.9

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The Grant's Gazelle species complex is hunted for meat and skins. Forms of hunting include traditional hunting, bushmeat hunting with snares and trophy hunting.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species as a whole remains widespread within and outside protected areas, despite the loss of parts of its range to the expansion of agriculture and the decline of some populations because of poaching and competition with increasing numbers of livestock. It is nevertheless of concern that its numbers appear to be in decline over large parts of its range (e.g., Tsavo) and that populations which were known to be stable or increasing comprise only about 25% of the species’ total numbers (East 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: About 30% of the total population of the range lies within protected areas (East 1999). The largest surviving populations occur in Omo-Mago-Munrle-Chew Bahir and Borana (Ethiopia), the northern rangelands, Kajiado, Mara, Tsavo and Laikipia (Kenya) and, in particular, Serengeti and Tarangire (Tanzania). Most of these protected populations are in gradual decline (East 1999). Grant's Gazelle seems to be relatively well protected and secure since a substantial fraction of its population is found in protected areas, such as Serengeti N.P., Taragire N.P. (although the bulk of the Serengeti Grant’s Gazelle population occurs well away from the western boundary of the protected area where most poaching activity occurs), Mkomazi G.R. (Tanzania), and Masai Mara N.R., Lake Nakuru N.P., Amboseli N.P., Nairobi N.P. (Kenya). Bright's Gazelle has a lower fraction of its population in protected areas (Siegismund et al. 2013). Tsavo N.P. and Tana River N.R. are the only protected areas within the range of Peter's Gazelle (Siegismund et al. 2013).

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):21-30
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Butynski, T., Kock, R., Dublin, H. and Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing. 1997. Kenya. Antelope Survey Update 5: 3-40. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group Report.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.

Fay, M., Elkan, P., Marjan, M. and Grossman, F. 2007. Aerial Surveys of Wildlife, Livestock, and Human Activity in and around Existing and Proposed Protected Areas of Southern Sudan, Dry Season 2007. WCS – Southern Sudan Technical Report.

Foley, C., Foley, L., Lobora, A., De Luca, D., Msuha, M., Davenport, T.R.B. and Durant, S. 2014. A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London, UK.

Lorenzen, E. D., Arctander, P. and Siegismund, H. R. 2008. Three reciprocally monophyletic mtDNA lineages elucidate the taxonomic status of Grant's gazelles. Conservation Genetics 9: 593-601.

Schloeder, C. A., Jacobs, M., Graham, A., Shiferaw, F., Syvertsen, P. O., Thouless, C., Wilhelmi, F., Moehlman, P. and Clark, B. 1997. Ethiopia. Antelope Survey Update 6: 23-49. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group Report.

Siegismund, H.R., Lorenzen, E.D. and Arctander, P. 2013. Nanger (granti) Grant's Gazelle species group. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 373-379. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Nanger granti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T8971A50186774. . Downloaded on 20 August 2018.
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