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Cyanea kolekoleensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Campanulales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Cyanea kolekoleensis (H.St.John) Lammers
Synonym(s):
Delissea kolekoleensis H. St. John
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-12
Assessor(s): Kishida, W. & Wood, K.
Reviewer(s): Clark, M. & Bruegmann, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Frances, A. & Schatz, G.E.
Justification:

Cyanea kolekoleensis is Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) because it has a population size of zero. The species was discovered in 1987 with a population size of approximately 15 mature individuals.  The original population had an area of occurrence of 0.94 km2. The population size had decreased to seven individuals by the early 1990s, and only one individual was observed in 1998. The species has not been seen since 1998 despite many surveys.

The habitat is threatened by pigs and non-native invasive plant speciesThis area was impacted by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Storage and propagation for this species was attempted, but none of the plants survived. There is currently none in storage or cultivation. There is still suitable habitat available for this species, but the quality of the habitat is declining. Surveys need to be done to assess if this species is still extant.

Date last seen: 1998

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, and was historically found between 650 and 755 m elevation. It was known only from the Wahiawa Drainage.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:0
Lower elevation limit (metres):650
Upper elevation limit (metres):755
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The taxon has not been observed since 1998. When it was originally discovered in 1987, there were approximately 15 mature individuals in one subpopulation. By the early 1990s, the only known subpopulation was represented by seven mature individuals.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a shrub that was found in lowland wet forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha - Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet forest. It was observed on stream banks and confluences of streams.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no known uses for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The habitat is threatened by pigs and non-native invasive plant species such as Clidemia hirta, Psidium cattleianum, Cyathea cooperi. This area was impacted by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Predation by nonnative slugs and rats is likely a threat to individuals of all Cyanea species in Hawaii (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010). 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed as Endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010) and is also on the State of Hawaii's Endangered Species List. The one observed population occurred on private land and was not in a protected area. Conducting surveys in existing potential habitat is essential to determining whether this species is extant. Potential suitable habitat is difficult to access and potentially includes areas outside of the single location where it was originally collected. The potential suitable habitat is typically accessible only by helicopter, and requires permission from the private landowners. Storage and propagation for this species was attempted, but none of the plants survived (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010). Other research and conservation actions are dependent on rediscovery of the species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Past, Likely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Psidium cattleianum ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Clidemia hirta ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Unspecified Rattus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Sus domesticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Cyathea cooperi ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends
0. Root -> 4. Other

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and Designation of Critical Habitat; Final Rule. Federal Register 75(70): 18960-19165.


Citation: Kishida, W. & Wood, K. 2015. Cyanea kolekoleensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T80230419A80230474. . Downloaded on 22 May 2018.
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