|Scientific Name:||Eleotris melanosoma|
|Species Authority:||Bleeker, 1853|
Culius macrocephalus Bleeker, 1857
Eleotris macrocephala Bleeker, 1857
Eleotris melanosoma was described from Wahai in the Maluku islands (Bleeker 1852). It is distinguished from congeners in having 46–58 lateral row scales, usually 18–19 pectoral rays, 12–13 gill rakers on the first gill arch and two longitudinal rows of papillae on the opercle meeting posteriorly (Kottelat et al. 1993).
This species has been confused with Eleotris fusca; hence Pusey et al. (2004) combined their natural history account of both. Research on the taxonomy of E. fusca is currently underway (P. Keith pers comm. 2011).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Larson, H. & Ng, H.H.|
|Reviewer/s:||Ram, M., Beresford, A., Collen, B., Richman, N. & Chenery, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Livingston, F., Wilson, P., Lintott, P., Kemp, K., Batchelor, A., Milligan, HT, Keith, P., Hoese, D., De Silva, R., Lutz, M.L., Jopling, B., Lewis, S., Sears, J. & Smith, J.|
This is a very widespread, abundant species with no known or projected threats. The global population of this species is not expected to undergo any significant decline in the near future, and it is assessed as Least Concern.
The species is known from Asia and Oceania: from the east African coast, and from the Society Islands to north of Japan. This species has been introduced into the Panama Canal Zone (Koumans 1953).
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia (Queensland); China; Fiji; French Polynesia; Hong Kong; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Madagascar; Maldives; Mozambique; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; South Africa; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tonga; Vanuatu
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information on population trends available for this species. However, given its very wide distribution and the absence of any significant threats, the global population can be considered stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a demersal, amphidromous species that can usually be found on mud, sand or gravel substrates. Adults inhabit brackish estuaries and medium to large size rivers. Individuals (like most in the genus) require concealment among leaf litter, woody debris and submerged bank vegetation of freshwater streams.
The species has been well-studied in Okinawa, Japan (Maeda and Tachihara 2005, Maeda et al. 2007), where this species spawns during May to December, but their pelagic larval duration is not known. The larvae settle out within estuarine waters (tidally influenced).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known major threats for this species. It is known from estuarine and riverine habitats where it may suffer localised declines due to water pollution and fishing activity.|
|Conservation Actions:||Although this is a common, very widespread species, more information about its population size and trends, biology and potential threats (even if localized) facing this species is required. No species-specific conservation measures are in place or needed at present. It occurs within several protected areas within its range.|
Allen, G.R. 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea.
Bleeker, P. 1852. Nieuwe bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Ceram. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 3: 689–714.
Donaldson, T.J. and Myers, R.F. 2002. Insular freshwater fish faunas of Micronesia: patterns of species richness and similarity. Environmental Biology of Fishes 65: 139-149.
Fricke, R., Kulbicki, M. and Wantiez, L. 2011. Checklist of the fishes of New Caledonia, and their distribution in the Southwest Pacifi c Ocean (Pisces). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde A, Neue Serie 4: 341-463.
Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Fishes. In: P.L. Beesley and A. Wells (eds), Zoological Catalogue of Australia, pp. 2178. Australian Biological Resources Study and Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Jenkins, A., Jupiter, S.D., Qauqau, I. and Atherton, J. 2010. The importance of ecosystem-based management for conserving aquatic migratory pathways on tropical high islands: a case study from Fiji. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20: 224-238.
Kottelat, M., Whitten, A.J., Kartikasari, S.N. and Wirjoatmodjo, S. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.
Koumans, F.P. 1953. Gobioidea. In: M. Weber and L.F. de Beaufort (eds), Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago, pp. 423. E.J. Brill, Leiden.
Maeda, K. and Tachihara, K. 2004. Instream distributions and feeding habits of two species of sleeper, Eleotris acanthopoma and Eleotris fusca, in the Teima River, Okinawa Island. Ichthyological Research 51: 233-240.
Maeda, K., Mukai, T. and Tachihara, K. 2011. Newly collected specimens of the sleeper Eleotris acanthopoma (Teleostei: Eleotridae) from French Polynesia indicate a wide and panmictic distribution in the west and south Pacific. Pacific Science 65: 257-264.
|Citation:||Larson, H. & Ng, H.H. 2012. Eleotris melanosoma. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2014.|
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