Eidolon dupreanum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Eidolon dupreanum (Pollen in Schlegel & Pollen, 1866)
Common Name(s):
English Madagascan Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ad ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Andriafidison, D., Cardiff, S.G., Goodman, S.M., Hutson, A.M., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Racey, P.A., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F.H. & Razafimanahaka, H.J.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is estimated to have undergone a decline exceeding 30% over the past 20 years mainly from extreme pressure from hunting, causing it to abandon roosts, with known examples of local extirpation of roosts sites.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the island of Madagascar where it is widespread, albeit with a patchy distribution (MacKinnon et al. 2003). It is found both along the coast and on the central high plateau and areas from where there are no records probably reflect inadequate survey coverage rather than a genuine absence. There are some areas within its range where the lack of crevices means there are no roosting opportunities (Goodman et al. 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):10
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size and local abundance of this species are not well known. Estimates of colony size are difficult to obtain because the bats are hidden during the day, but is usually in the range of between 10 and 500, with a median of 200 individuals (MacKinnon et al. 2003). The maximum colony size of 1,400 is from Réserve Spéciale d’Ankarana (S. G. Cardiff unpubl.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is known to roost in tree foliage, but is more usually found in rock fissures and caves (MacKinnon et al. 2003). In Réserve Spéciale d’Ankarana it used caves that were high and long with a good buffering capacity for temperature and humidity (Cardiff 2006). Its patchy distribution which includes humid, dry deciduous and spiny forest is probably related to the availability of suitable roost sites and E. dupreanum is rare or absent from a number of forests without rocky outcrops (Goodman et al. 2005; Jenkins et al. 2007; Schmid and Alonso 2005). It continues to survive in highly modified landscapes with very little native vegetation remaining (Ratrimomanarivo 2007), but appears to use native forest vegetation for food in preference to introduced plants (Picot et al. 2007). Fruit is the main dietary component but it also eats leaves and other plant parts (Picot 2005; Picot et al. 2007). Through the ingestion of pollen and small seeds, a significant ecological role is inferred (Picot et al. 2007; Ratrimomanarivo 2007) and E. dupreanum may be an important pollinator of threatened baobab trees (Baum 1995). Additional research is needed on natural history and in particular roosting ecology and movements. MacKinnon et al. (2003) suggested that E. dupreanum might be migratory because of regular variation in the occupancy and abundance of roosts. Antibodies to Nipah, Tioman and Hendra viruses were detected in E. dupreanum in eastern Madasgascar (Iehlé et al. 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is subject to harvesting for bushmeat across its range and hunting occurs both at roosting and foraging sites (Jenkins and Racey in press). It is classed as a game species under Malagasy law and although it can only be legally hunted between May and August (Durbin 2007), this legislation is widely ignored and the bats are hunted throughout the year. Its roosts tend to be well protected from bushfires and it is able to survive in landscapes with severely depleted natural food supplies as long as alternative plants are available (Ratrimomanarivo 2007). Hunting is therefore the main threat and was reported to account for a 30% desertion rate from 60 roosts (MacKinnon et al. 2003). Although hunters report that deserted roosts are recolonized after a few years, there are several confirmed examples where this species has been extirpated at roost sites (MacKinnon et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known from a number of protected areas (Goodman et al. 2005) including, Parc National d’Isalo, Parc National de Namoroka, Réserve Spéciale d’Ankarana and Réserve Spéciale de Cape Sainte Marie; however, hunting has been reported from within Réserve Spéciale d’Ankarana (Cardiff 2006). Roosts that are located in inaccessible rock outcrops pose significant challenges to hunters are relatively protected. Cave roosts are probably subject to highest hunting pressure and conservation measures should be focused at these sites.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) -> 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Baum, D. A. 1995. The comparative pollination and floral biology of Baobabs (Adansonia - Bombacaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 82: 323-348.

Cardiff, S.G. 2006. Bat cave selection and conservation in Ankarana, Northern Madagascar. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.

Durbin, J. 2007. New legislation for the protection of Malagasy species. Lemur News 11: 4-6.

Goodman, S.M., Andriafidison, D., Andrianaivoarivelo, R., Cardiff, S.G., Ifticene, E., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A., Mbohoahy, T., Rakotondravony, D., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F., Razafimanahaka, J. and Racey, P.A. 2005. The distribution and conservation of bats in the dry regions of Madagascar. Animal Conservation 8: 153-165.

Iehlé, C., Razafitrimo, G., Razainirina, J., Andriaholinirina, N., Goodman, S. M., Faure, C., Georges-Coubot. M.-C., Rousset, D. and Reynes, J.-M. 2007. Henipa and Tioman virus antibodies in Pteropid bats, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13: 159-161.

Jenkins, R.K.B. and Racey, P.A. 2008. Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation and Development 3(1): 22-30.

Jenkins, R. K. B., Kofoky, A. F, Russ, J. M.Friafidison, A., Siemers, B. M., Randrianandrianina, F. H., Mbohoahy, T., Rahaingodrahety, V. N and Racey, P. A. 2007. Ecology of Bats in the southern Anosy Region. In: J. U. Ganzhorn, S. M. Goodman, and M. Vincelette (eds), Biodiversity, ecology and conservation of littoral ecosystems in southeastern Madagascar, Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

MacKinnon, J., Hawkins, C. E. and Racey, P. A. 2003. Pteropodidae. In: S. M. Goodman and J. P. Benstead (eds), The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 1299–1302. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Picot, M. M. 2005. Etude de l'écologie du Megachiroptere Eidolon dupreanum (Pollen, 1866) et son rôle dans la Dispersion des Graines en Lisière Du Corridor Forestier Reliant les Parcs Nationaux de Ranomafana et d'Andringitra. Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université d'Antananarivo.

Picot, M. M., Jenkins, R. K. B., Ramilijaona, O. R., Racey, P. A. and Carriere, S. M. 2007. The feeding ecology of Eidolon dupreanum (Chirotpera: Pteropodidae) in eastern Madagascar. African Journal of Ecology 45: 645-650.

Ratrimomanarivo, F. H. 2007. Étude du régime alimentaire d'Eidolon dupreanum (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) dans la région anthropisée des hautes terres du centre de Madagascar. Revue d'Écologie (La Terre et la Vie) 62: 229-244.

Schmid, J. and Alonso, L. E. 2005. A rapid biological assessment of the Mantadia-Zahamena corridor, Madagascar. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.

Citation: Andriafidison, D., Cardiff, S.G., Goodman, S.M., Hutson, A.M., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Racey, P.A., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F.H. & Razafimanahaka, H.J. 2008. Eidolon dupreanum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T7083A12824774. . Downloaded on 23 June 2018.
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