Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Viverridae

Scientific Name: Diplogale hosei
Species Authority: (Thomas, 1892)
Common Name(s):
English Hose's Civet, Hose's Palm Civet
Hemigalus hosei Thomas, 1892
Taxonomic Notes: This species is often included in the genus Hemigalus, but Corbet and Hill (1992) suggested that morphological differences supported the validity of the genus Diplogale.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Hon, J. & Azlan, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations (inferred to be 15 years) and suspected to be more than 30% in the next three generations - due to declines in population inferred from habitat destruction and degradation. Its area of occupancy is relatively small and continuing to decline as habitat disappears, thus it may in the future (when more is known of the distribution) also qualify for listing using criterion B. It is likely that the species could qualify for a higher threat category once further information is available on its ecology and threats – thus it is considered relatively urgent to conduct and promote further research on this species.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Indeterminate (I)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Hose’s palm civet is endemic to the island of Borneo, found in Sabah, Sarawak (Malaysia) and Brunei (Francis 2002; Yasuma 2004; Wilson and Reeder 2005). In Sabah, this species was recorded in Mount Kinabulu National Park (Dinets 2003; Wells et al. 2005), in Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary (Azlan pers. Obs. And Sabah Wildlife Department). In Brunei, the species has been recorded in Ulu Temburong National Park (Francis 2002; Yasuma 2004), as well as from Bukit Retak (deep within Ulu Temburong National Park, at 04 31 N, 115 10 E) in 1997 (Yasuma 2004). This civet’s full elevational range is thought to extend from 450 m (Francis 2002) to 1,700 m (Dinets 2003). The holotype is from Mount Dulit in northeastern Sarawak collected in 1,891 at 1,200 m (Van Rompaey and Azlan 2004).
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Malaysia
Lower elevation limit (metres): 450
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Almost nothing is known about population status and breeding status of Hose’s palm civet (Van Rompaey and Azlan, 2004)). As this species is known from only 17 individual museum specimens, it is either rare, its range in northern Borneo has not yet been thoroughly explored, or a combination of the two (Van Rompaey and Azlan 2004). The wide altitudinal spread of records suggests that the species ought to be common in collections; the fact that it is not suggests very strongly that something limits its population to be very localised in distribution, very low density, or both.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Little is known of the ecology of Hose’s palm civet and further studies are required. Observations by Yasuma (2004) suggest the species is nocturnal and ground-dwelling, making dens in holes between rocks and/or tree roots.

Due to the few recorded sightings of this species in the wild, each in different forest types and elevations, the habitat preference and ecology of this species is difficult to characterize and remains largely unknown. Although it was formerly assumed to be strictly montane (e.g. Payne et al. 1985), several recent sightings suggest this species is wide-ranging in terms of elevation (Francis 2002, Van Rompaey and Azlan 2004, Azlan pers. comm.).This species has been recorded from primary lowland rainforest, montane forests, mature mixed dipterocarp forest hilltop and montane broadleaf forest (Payne et al, 1985; Dinets, 2003; Van Rompaey and Azlan, 2004; Yasuma, 2004; Wells et al., 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): As very little is known about Hose’s palm civet, it is difficult to characterize current threats (Azlan pers. comm.); nevertheless habitat loss and degradation have been assumed to be major threats to this species (Schreiber et al. 1989). Across its range, there has been loss and degradation of forests through logging and conversion of forests to non-forest land-uses. It is possible that hunting could pose a major threat, especially as population numbers and trends are unknown. This species was listed as ‘Threatened’ in the IUCN Action Plan for the Conservation of Mustelids and Viverrids since it is known from only 15 museum specimens (most recent specimen collected in 1955) and there were then no records of a live individual being spotted in the wild (Schreiber et al. 1989).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Hose’s palm civet is protected in Sarawak (Wildlife Protection Enactment 1998) and in Sabah (Wildlife Protection Enactment 1997). The species is known to occur in protected areas such as Mount Kinabulu National Park in Borneo where it was recorded in 2003-04 (Wells et al, 2005) and in 2002 (Dinets, 2003), as well as in Ulu Temburong National Park in Brunei (Yasuma, 2004; Francis, 2002).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: a Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Dinets, V. 2003. Records of small carnivores from Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo. Small Carnivore Conservation 28: 9.

Francis, C.M. 2002. An observation of Hose's civet in Brunei. Small Carnivore Conservation 26: 16.

Van Rompaey, H. and Azlan, M. J. 2004. Hose's Civet, Diplogale hosei. Small Carnivore Conservation 30: 18-19.

Wells, K., Biun, A. and Gabin, M. 2005. Viverrid and herpestid observations by camera and small mammal cage trapping in the lowland rainforests on Borneo including a record of the Hose's Civet, Diplogale hosei. Small Carnivore Conservation 32: 12-14.

Wells, K., Lakim, M., Bernard, H. and Pfeiffer, M. 2004. Small mammals in the rainforest canopy: a neglected group of conservational concern? Asean Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation On-line Journal: 1-9.

Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Yasuma, S. 2004. Observations of a live Hose's Civet Diplogale hosei. Small Carnivore Conservation 31: 3-5.

Citation: Hon, J. & Azlan, M.J. 2008. Diplogale hosei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T6635A12791803. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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