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Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela (Matschie, 1892)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Topi
Taxonomic Notes: Topi (Damaliscus lunatus jimela) is one of six subspecies of Topi (Damaliscus lunatus), following Duncan (2013). The others being: Korrigum (D. l. korrigum); Tiang (D. l. tiang); Coastal Topi (D. l. topi); Bangweulu Tsessebe (D. l. superstes); and Tsessebe (D. l. lunatus).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A4bcd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Cooke, R.
Justification:
This subspecies has shown a large decline in Tanzania (where the majority of the global population occurs) from around 58,500 individuals in 1999 to 35,000-46,500 individuals in 2014, due to the combined impacts of agro-pastoral development, hunting and the decreasing availability of floodplain habitat. This equates to a projected decline over three generations (18 years) of 25-46% (average decline 36%) in Tanzania. Assuming no decline outside of Tanzania would result in an overall decline of 20-38% (average decline 29%) and a listing of Near Threatened. However we take a precautious approach, noting that any decline outside Tanzania (as suspected) will have pushed the subspecies into a threatened category; therefore it is listed as Vulnerable under criterion A4 (an inferred decline of greater than 30% over three generations: 1999 to 2017).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Topi (sensu stricto) occur in south-west Kenya, northwest and western Tanzania, east and south-western Uganda and north-eastern Rwanda. Topi are now extinct in Burundi.

For the distribution map, see the parent species assessment: Damaliscus lunatus.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Kenya; Rwanda; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
Regionally extinct:
Burundi
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) estimated a global population of ca 71,000 Topi. This subspecies is generally decreasing, for example numbers in the Masai Mara declined ca 70% between 1977 and 2007 (Ogutu et al. 2011). The largest population (27,000-38,500) is in the Serengeti ecosystem; there are an estimated 4,000-5,000 in Moyowsi-Kigosi Game reserve and 1,000-2,000 in Ugalla Game Reserve (Foley et al. 2014). In Tanzania (where the majority of the global population occurs) Topi have declined from around 58,500 individuals (East 1999) to 35,000-46,500 individuals (Foley et al. 2014) over 15 years.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:50000-70000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Topi is generally an inhabitant of floodplains and other grasslands and savannas in East Africa. Nearly exclusively grazers, they can go for months without drinking in the dry season if they are feeding on growing grass (Duncan 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):6.1

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This subspecies is hunted for food and sport. In Tanzania, the Government trophy fee for a topi is US$800, so with added Community Development/anti-poaching fees, the full trophy fee is between US$950 and US$1900.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to the species in general, and the subspecies Topi (D. l. jimela), are agro-pastoral development and hunting. The maintenance of floodplains is also important, for example the population around Lake Rukwa (Tanzania) decreased following a rise in water levels which caused a reduction in the area of the floodplain (Vesey-Fitzgerald 1960, Rodgers 1982).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: More than 90% of Topi occur in protected areas, in particular Serengeti N.P. (Tanzania), Queen Elizabeth N.P. (Uganda), Virunga N.P. (DR Congo), Akagera N.P. (Rwanda) and Maasai-Mara (Kenya). However, the populations in Queen Elizabeth N.P and the Virungas have been declining (East 1999). The population in Akagera, the last effective stronghold for Topi in Rwanda, declined from around 7,500 in 1990 to an estimated 770 in the late 1990s following the reduction in size of the park in 1997 (Williams and Ntayombya 1999), although the population has since recovered (Apio and Wronski 2011).

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):91-100
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Unknown ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Apio, A. and Wronski, T. 2011. A rough population estimate of large ungulates in the Akagera National Park, Rwanda. Gnusletter 29(2): 14-16. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group.

Duncan, P. 2013. Damaliscus lunatus Topi/Tsessebe/Tiang/Korrigum. In: J.. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 502-510. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Foley, C., Foley, L., Lobora, A., De Luca, D., Msuha, M., Davenport, T.R.B. and Durant, S. 2014. A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Ogutu, J.O., Owen‐Smith, N., Piepho, H.P. and Said, M.Y. 2011. Continuing wildlife population declines and range contraction in the Mara region of Kenya during 1977–2009. Journal of Zoology 285: 99-109.

Rodgers, W.A. 1982. The decline of large mammal populations on the Lake Rukwa grasslands, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 20: 13-22.

Vesey-Fitzgerald, D.F. 1960. Grazing succession amongst East African game animals. Journal of Mammalogy 41: 161-170.

Williams, S.D. and Ntayombya, P. 1999. Akagera: An assessment of the biodiversity and conservation needs. Report of the Zoological Society of London – MINAGRI, London, UK.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T6241A50185829. . Downloaded on 23 October 2017.
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