Podarcis muralis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Lacertidae

Scientific Name: Podarcis muralis
Species Authority: (Laurenti, 1768)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Common Wall Lizard
Spanish Lagartija Roquera, Lagartija Roquera
Taxonomic Notes: Additional research is needed to understand the status of several described subspecies.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Wolfgang Böhme, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Marc Cheylan, Hans Konrad Nettmann, László Krecsák, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Benedikt Schmidt, Petros Lymberakis, Richard Podloucky, Roberto Sindaco, Aziz Avci
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widely distributed in Europe. It ranges from northern Spain, northwards to northern France, southern Belgium, Luxembourg, west-central Germany, much of Austria, southwestern Czech Republic, central Slovakia and central Hungary, and eastwards to central Romania, Bulgaria, most of the Balkans (excluding most of the Aegean islands) and northwestern Anatolia, Turkey. It occurs on Jersey in the Channel Islands (United Kingdom). It is largely absent from Northern Europe (it occurs as small patchy, isolated populations in the north of its range), southern Iberia (though there are fragmented, isolated populations in central Spain), and parts of southern Italy and its larger islands (Sardinia, Sicily, and Apulia). It has been introduced to the United States. Many southern subspecies of P. muralis have been introduced to Switzerland, where they are mostly found along railway lines (Benedikt Schmidt pers. comm.). It is found from sea level up to 2,500m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Austria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Turkey; United Kingdom
United States
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is generally an abundant species in suitable habitat.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In dry areas, the species is largely found in humid or semi-humid habitats. It the more northern parts of its range it is mostly found in the driest areas. It can be occur in rocky and scree areas, scrubland, deciduous and coniferous woodland, orchards, vineyards, fields, stone walls, and on buildings. It is often found in human settlements including large cities and villages and railway lines which may be a possible method of dispersal. The females lay two to three clutches of two to six eggs per year. This species has been introduced in many places in Germany and the United Kingdom, often presumably by hobbyists (e.g. terrarium owners).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There generally appear to be no major threats to this adaptable and widespread species. Populations are locally threatened in parts of its range, including those on islands or in mountains (for example through the development of alpine tourism in the Central Mountains of Spain). Several populations, principally in Northern Europe, are threatened by the loss of suitable habitat to agricultural intensification and overuse of pesticides. This species is frequently encountered in the pet trade, however the overall impact of this is not considered to constitute a major threat. The introduction of non-native subspecies may represent a threat to some localized populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and on Annex IV of the European Union Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries (e.g.. Switzerland), and occurs in a number of protected areas. The subspecies P. m. rasquinetti is listed as DD on the Spanish National Red List. This species is categorized as Least Concern in Switzerland (Monney and Meyer, 2005).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Aleksić, I. and Ljubisavljević, K. 2001. Reproductive cycle in the Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis) from Belgrade. Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade 53(3-4): 73 – 81.

Andreu, A., Bea, A., Braña, F., Galán, P., López-Jurado, L.F., Pérez-Mellado, V., Pleguezuelos, J.M. and Salvador, A. 1998. Fauna Ibérica. Reptiles. 10: 1-705.

Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press., Princeton and Oxford.

Baran, I. and Atatür, M.K. 1998. Turkish herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment, Ankara.

Bejaković, D., Aleksić, I., Crnobrnja-Isailović, J., Džukić, G. and Kalezić, M.L. 1996. Female reproductive traits in the Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis) from the Skadar Lake region, Montenegro. Rev.Esp.Herp. 10: 91-96.

Çevik, I.E. 1999. Trakya'da Yasayan Kertenkele Türlerinin Taksonomik Durumu (Lacertilia: Anguidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae). Tr. J. of Zoology: 23-35.

Dexel, R. 1985. Zur Ökologie der Mauereidechse Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) (Sauria: Lacertidae) an ihrer nördlichen Arealgrenze. I. Verbreitung, Habitat, Habitus und Lebensweise. Salamandra: 63-78.

Gasc, J.-P., Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher, K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martínez-Rica, J.P., Maurin, H., Oliveira, M.E., Sofianidou, T.S., Veith, M. and Zuiderwijk, A. 1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Gruschwitz, M. and Böhme, W. 1986. Podarcis muralis - Mauereidechse. In: Böhme, W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 2/II., Echsen III (Podarcis)., pp. 155-208. Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Henle, K. 1985. Ökologische, zoogeographische und systematische Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna Jugoslawiens. Salamandra: 229-251.

Hofer, U., Monney, J.-C. and Dusej, G. 2001. Die Reptilien der Schweiz: Verbreitung, Lebensräume, Schutz. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.

Hohl, C. 1985. Versuch einer systematischen Bestandsaufnahme der Eidechsenpopulationen in der Region Basel (Schweiz). Salamandra: 55-62.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.1). Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2009).

Kasapidis, P., Provatidou, S., Maragou, P. and Valakos, E.D. 1996. Neue Daten über die Herpetofauna von Lesbos (ägäische Inseln, Griechenland) und einige biogeographische Bemerkungen über die Inseln des nordöstlichen ägäischen Archipels. Salamandra 32(3): 171-180.

Martin, M.R. 1998. Untersuchungen zur Ökologie der Mauereidechse (Podarcis muralis, Laur.) in Heidelberg. Die Eidechse: 10-21.

Monney, J.-C. and Meyer, A. 2005. Rote Liste der gefährdeten Reptilien der Schweiz. BUWAL-Reihe: Vollzug Umwelt, 50 S., (BUWAL, Bern, Switzerland).

Nöllert, A., Nöllert, C. and Ritter, A. 1986. Einige Beobachtungen zur Herpetofauna der bulgarischen Schwarzmeerküste und Südwestbulgariens (Teil 2 - Die Reptilien). Herpetofauna 8(44): 30-34.

Pleguezuelos, J.M., Márquez, R. and Lizana, M. 2002. Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la naturaleza-Associación Herpetológica Española., Madrid.

Sindaco, R. and Jeremčenko, V.K. 2008. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic. 1. Annotated Checklist and Distributional atlas of the turtles, crocodiles, amphisbaenians and lizards of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy).

Sindaco, R., Doria, G., Razzetti, E. and Bernini, F. 2006. Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles\\Atlante Degli Anfibi E Dei Rettili D'Italia. Societas Herpetologica Italica - Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze.

Sindaco, R., Venchi, A., Carpaneto, G.M. and Bologna, M.A. 2000. The reptiles of Anatolia: a checklist and zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia 21: 441-554.

Citation: Wolfgang Böhme, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Marc Cheylan, Hans Konrad Nettmann, László Krecsák, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Benedikt Schmidt, Petros Lymberakis, Richard Podloucky, Roberto Sindaco, Aziz Avci. 2009. Podarcis muralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T61550A12514105. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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