|Scientific Name:||Elattoneura leucostigma|
|Species Authority:||(Fraser, 1933)|
Disparoneura leucostigma Fraser, 1933
|Taxonomic Notes:||Originally described as Disparoneura leucostigma Fraser, 1933c.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Kalkman, V. & Clausnitzer, V. (Odonata Red List Authority)|
Not found since its description in 1933 and the species might be already extinct. Since no really exhaustive odonatological faunistic survey, covering appropriate localities in different seasons, has been made by odonatologists in order to eventually find its remaining populations, the species does not qualify under category extinct (EX). More field research is urgently needed.
|Range Description:||Endemic to Sri Lanka. Only type locality known (Nuwara Eliya, Nuwara Eliya District). Not present in any of the large odonatological collections from the island made by entomologist (not odonatologists!) in last 50 years (Naturhistorischen Museum Basle (Switzerland), National Museum of Natural History - Smithsonian Institution (USA), Lund University (Sweden) and University of Vienna (Austria)) (museum collections accessed by M. Bedjanic between 2005-2009). Also not found during the author’s surveys in last years (1995, 2001, 2003).|
Possibly extinct:Sri Lanka
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population size and trend is unknown, possibly extinct.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species inhabits small streams in dense montane forests. Larval form unknown.|
|Major Threat(s):||The species’ habitat type is under great pressure due to water extraction, pollution and destruction of natural montane forest. The appropriate natural habitats in Nuwara Eliya region were heavily damaged and fragmented in the last decades. Destruction of primary montane forests, planting of alochthonous (foreign) tree species for forest plantations, destruction of forest corridors along streams, pollution, water extraction and other pressures on streams and upper courses of rivers in mountainous central part of Sri Lanka are the major threat for endemic dragonfly fauna of the region.|
General guidelines for protection of endemic dragonfly fauna in mountain regions of Sri Lanka include (1) establishment of network of new small protected areas and corridors, (2) conservation of forest corridors along streams and rivulets outside protected areas and (3) renaturation/conversion of alochthonous (foreign) forests in the wider surroundings of streams (Bedjanic 2004).
General note: Knowledge on distribution, biology and taxonomy of several endangered endemic dragonfly species from Sri Lanka is very poor or insufficient. In the future special attention should be devoted to the work dealing with taxonomy of larval forms and adults. Serious odonatological faunistic mapping should cover the whole island and should be urgently focused on still preserved and protected areas. Simultaneously also the research of biology and ecology of selected endangered species should be carried out. As far as species habitat and potential area of occurrence is concerned the Sri Lankan Moist Forests (Ecoregion 21: Sri Lanka montane rain forests (IM0155)) and South-western Sri Lanka Rivers and Streams (Ecoregion 172) are included in the prestigious WWF’s global 200 list of the earth’s most biologically outstanding habitats. The conservation status of the ecoregions is judged as critical/endangered (Ecoregion 21) and vulnerable (Ecoregion 172) (Olson et al. 2000).
Bedjanič, M. 2004. Odonata fauna of Sri Lanka: research state and threat status. Guardians of the watershed - Global status of dragonflies: critical species, threat and conservation 7(2): 279-294.
Fraser, F.C. 1933c. A new species of Disparoneura from Ceylon (order Odonata). Ceylon Journal of Science - Section B: Zoology 17(3): 225-226.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Abell, R., Allnutt, T., Carpenter, C., Mcclenachan, L., D’amico, J., Hurley, P., Kassem, K., Strand, H., Taye, M. and Thieme, M. 2000. The Global 200: a representation approach to conserving the earth’s distinctive ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington.
|Citation:||Bedjanič, M. 2009. Elattoneura leucostigma. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 June 2013.|
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