Lissotriton vulgaris 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Lissotriton vulgaris
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Smooth Newt
Triturus vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Notes: Further taxonomic studies are required on this species. Numerous subspecies exist.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Jan Willem Arntzen, Sergius Kuzmin, Trevor Beebee, Theodore Papenfuss, Max Sparreboom, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Steven Anderson, Brandon Anthony, Franco Andreone, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Boris Tuniyev
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread through most of Europe (with the exception of the Iberian Peninsula from which it is absent). It ranges from Ireland and Great Britain, through west and central Europe and Scandinavia, south to Italy, the Balkans and northern and western Turkey, and east through much of the steppes of Ukraine and Russia. There is an isolated population in the Caucasus. The species occurs at elevations from sea level up to 2,150m asl (Austria).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2150
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is very common or numerous over much of its range.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is generally associated with woodland habitats, including deciduous, coniferous, mixed forests and dry forests and woodlands. This is an adaptable species also present in meadows, bushlands, parks, fruit gardens, many damp habitats and rural and urban areas. The species breeds in still and slow moving shallow waters and irrigation ditches; females lay 200-300 eggs. It is often recorded from modified habitats. Several hybrids with L. helveticus have been reported while hybridization with L. montandoni is quite common in syntopic populations
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. Localized threats to the species include general drainage, pollution and eutrophication of breeding sites, logging of forest surrounding breeding pools and the introduction of predatory fishes. In the former Soviet Union there is mass commercial collecting of this species for the pet trade. Within Turkey, construction and building along the Black Sea coastline might be impacting northern Turkish populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is presumed to occur in numerous protected areas. It is listed in a number of Red Data Books and Lists and is both listed on Appendix III of the Berne Convention and protected by national legislation in parts of its range. In parts of this species range mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established. Several of the recognized subspecies may qualify for a higher threat listing and should be assessed in the future following taxonomic clarification.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.13. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Inland Deltas
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.8. Abstraction of ground water (unknown use)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

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Citation: Jan Willem Arntzen, Sergius Kuzmin, Trevor Beebee, Theodore Papenfuss, Max Sparreboom, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Steven Anderson, Brandon Anthony, Franco Andreone, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Boris Tuniyev. 2009. Lissotriton vulgaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T59481A11932252. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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