|Scientific Name:||Taricha granulosa|
|Species Authority:||(Skilton, 1849)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Garcia Moreno, J.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, and presumed large population.
|Range Description:||This species occurs on the Pacific coast of North America from southeastern Alaska to Santa Cruz County, California (Stebbins 1985, Petranka 1998). Records from the Rocky Mountains, including populations in Latah County, Idaho, and Sanders, Montana, could represent introductions, though Monello and Wright (1997) recorded three small populations in Latah County in 1997. It can be found at sea level to about 2,800 m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread and common, and its population is mostly stable. Total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It can be found in forests, woodlands, grasslands, open valleys, and ranch land. Found on land (in open or under rocks, logs, etc.) or in ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and slow-moving streams. It is the most aquatic western newt. It breeds in ponds, lakes, reservoirs and slow-moving streams. Lays eggs singly on aquatic plants or submerged twigs (Behler and King 1979).|
|Use and Trade:||No records of this species being utilized|
|Major Threat(s):||None known.|
|Conservation Actions:||Undeveloped buffers should be maintained around breeding sites. It occurs in many protected areas. Monitoring and research on population trends are recommended.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Gall, B. G., Stokes, A., N., French, S. S., Schlepphorst, E., A, Brodie III, E. D., Brodie Jr., E. D. 2011. Tetrodotoxin levels in larval and metamorphosed newts (Taricha granulosa) and palatability to predatory dagonflies. Toxicon 57: 978-983.
Hopkins, G. R., French, S. S., Brodie Jr., E. D. 2013. Increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) embryos exposed to road deicing salts (NaCL & MgCl2). Environmental Pollution 173: 264-269.
Hopkins, G. R., Gall, B. G., French, S. S., Brodie Jr., E. D. 2012. Interfamily variation in amphibian early life-history traits: raw material for natural selection? Ecology and Evolution 2(7): 1637-1643.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Monello, R.J. and Wright, R.G. 1997. Geographic distribution: Taricha granulosa. Herpetological Review: 155.
Nussbaum, R.A. and Brodie, E.D. Jr. 1981. Taricha granulosa. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-4.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Stebbins, R.C. 1954. Amphibians and Reptiles of Western North America. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Welsh, H.H., Jr., Hodgson, G.R. and Lind, A.J. 2005. Ecogeography of the herpetofauna of a northern Californian watershed: linking species patterns to landscape processes. Ecography: 521-536.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Taricha granulosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2015.|
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