|Scientific Name:||Taricha granulosa|
|Species Authority:||(Skilton, 1849)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Garcia Moreno, J. & Hobin, L.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of sub-populations and localities, large population size, and use of a wide range of habitats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species occurs on the Pacific coast of North America from southeastern Alaska to Santa Cruz County, California (Petranka 1998, Stebbins 2003). Records from the Rocky Mountains, including populations in Latah County, Idaho, and Sanders, Montana, could represent introductions, though Monello and Wright (1997) recorded three small populations in Latah County in 1997. Elevational range extends from sea level to about 2,800 m asl (Stebbins 2003).|
Native:Canada (British Columbia); United States (Alaska, California, Oregon, Washington)
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread and common, and its population is mostly stable. Total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 100,000.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitats include forests, woodlands, grasslands, open valleys, and ranch land. It can be found on land (in open or under rocks, logs, etc.) or in ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and slow-moving streams. It breeds in ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and slow-moving streams. Females deposit eggs singly on aquatic plants or submerged twigs (Behler and King 1979).|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats are known. Road mortality is a localized threat throughout the range but does not represent a major threat.|
It occurs in many protected areas.
Undeveloped buffers should be maintained around breeding sites.
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Gall, B. G., Stokes, A., N., French, S. S., Schlepphorst, E., A, Brodie III, E. D., Brodie Jr., E. D. 2011. Tetrodotoxin levels in larval and metamorphosed newts (Taricha granulosa) and palatability to predatory dagonflies. Toxicon 57: 978-983.
Hopkins, G. R., French, S. S., Brodie Jr., E. D. 2013. Increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) embryos exposed to road deicing salts (NaCL & MgCl2). Environmental Pollution 173: 264-269.
Hopkins, G. R., Gall, B. G., French, S. S., Brodie Jr., E. D. 2012. Interfamily variation in amphibian early life-history traits: raw material for natural selection? Ecology and Evolution 2(7): 1637-1643.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Monello, R.J. and Wright, R.G. 1997. Geographic distribution: Taricha granulosa. Herpetological Review: 155.
Nussbaum, R.A. and Brodie, E.D. Jr. 1981. Taricha granulosa. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-4.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Stebbins, R.C. 1954. Amphibians and Reptiles of Western North America. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Welsh, H.H., Jr., Hodgson, G.R. and Lind, A.J. 2005. Ecogeography of the herpetofauna of a northern Californian watershed: linking species patterns to landscape processes. Ecography: 521-536.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Taricha granulosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T59469A78909317. . Downloaded on 29 May 2016.|
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