Eurycea longicauda


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Eurycea longicauda
Species Authority: (Green, 1818)
Common Name(s):
English Longtail Salamander
Taxonomic Notes: Eurycea guttolineata was formerly included in this species. Bonett et al.'s (2013) study suggests that the two nominal subspecies Eurycea longicauda longicauda and Eurycea longicauda melanopleura could potentially be two distinct species as they are more closely related to other taxa than to each other.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-08-05
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species can be found in the USA from southern New York to Missouri, south to Arkansas, Tennessee, extreme northeastern Mississippi, northern Alabama, extreme northwestern Georgia, western North Carolina and northwestern Virginia (Carlin 1997).
United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It can be found in streamsides, spring runs, cave mouths and abandoned mines; also ponds in northern New Jersey (Conant and Collins 1991). Animals may disperse into wooded terrestrial habitats in wet weather. It hides in rock crevices and under rocks, logs and other debris. Eggs are laid in underground crevices associated with springs, temporary pools and streams; under rocks in streams; in woodland ponds; or are attached to objects in or above water in caves.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): While some local subpopulations may have been impacted by strip mining and acid drainage from coal mining, overall this species is not considered to be threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Although strip mining and acid drainage from coal mining likely have impacted many subpopulations, this species remains widely distributed and is in minimal need of protection (Petranka 1998). In addition, its range overlaps with several protected areas. Taxonomic research is needed to further elucidate the identities of the two subspecies.

Bibliography [top]

Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Bonett, R.M., Steffen, M.A., Lambert, S.M., Wiens, J.J., and Chippindale, P.T. 2013. Evolution of paedomorphosis in plethodontid salamanders: ecological correlated and re-evolution of metamorphosis. Evolution 68: 466–482.

Carlin, J.L. 1997. Genetic and morphological differentiation between Eurycea longicauda longicauda and E. guttolineata (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica: 206-217.

Conant R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Ireland, P.H. 1979. Eurycea longicauda. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-4.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: (Accessed: 13 November 2014).

Martof, B.S., Palmer, W.M., Bailey, J.R. and Harrison III, J.R. 1980. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.

Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Valentine, B.D. 1962. Intergrading populations and distribution of the salamander Eurycea longicauda in the Gulf states. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society: 42-51.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Eurycea longicauda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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