|Scientific Name:||Ambystoma macrodactylum|
|Species Authority:||(Baird, 1850)|
Ambystoma macrodactyla Baird, 1850
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species can be found in North America from southeastern Alaska southward to Tuolumne County, California, east to Rocky Mountains (east to east-central British Columbia, west-central Alberta, western Montana, and central Idaho). There are isolated populations in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California (Bury et al. 1980). It occurs from sea level to about 3,050m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total adult population size is unknown, but it surely exceeds 10,000.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in a wide variety of habitats, from semiarid sagebrush deserts to sub alpine meadows, including dry woodlands, humid forests, and rocky shores of mountain lakes. Adults are subterranean except during the breeding season. It breeds in temporary or permanent ponds or in quiet water at the edge of lakes and streams. During the breeding season adults may be found under logs, rocks, and other debris near water. Eggs are attached to vegetation or loose on bottom.|
|Major Threat(s):||In the Cascades of northern Washington, larval abundance was related to both lake productivity and the presence of introduced trouts (reduced larval abundance when trout present) (Tyler et al. 1998). In Montana, introduced trout populations clearly excluded salamanders from lakes (Funk and Dunlap 1999).|
|Conservation Actions:||Fisheries management could improve the status of salamander populations by not introducing fishes into salamander habitats where fishes are not native. Removal of non-native fishes from otherwise favourable salamander habitat is appropriate in many locations.|
Anderson, J.D. 1968. A comparison of the food habits of Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum, Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum, and Ambystoma tigrinum califoriense. Herpetologica: 273-284.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Bury, R.B., Dodd, Jr., C.K. and Fellers, G.M. 1980. Conservation of the Amphibia of the United States: a review. Resource Publication: 1-34.
Corkran, C.C. and Thoms, C. 1996. Amphibians of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta.
Ferguson, D.E. 1963. Ambystoma macrodactylum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.
Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980. Selected vertebrate endangered species of the seacoast of the United States - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard. FWS/OBS-80/01.2, Slidell.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Funk, W.C. and Dunlap, W.W. 1999. Colonization of high-elevation lakes by long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) after the extinction of introduced trout populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 1759-1767.
Howard, J.H. and Wallace, R.L. 1985. Life history characteristics of populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from different altitudes. American Midland Naturalist: 361-373.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Jones, T.R., Kluge, A.G. and Wolf, A.J. 1993. When theories and methodologies clash: a phylogenetic reanalysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Systematic Biology: 92-102.
Kraus, F. 1988. An empirical evaluation of the use of the ontogeny polarization criterion in phylogenetic inference. Systematic Zoology: 106-141.
Leonard, W.P., Brown, H.A., Jones, L.L.C., McAllister, K.R. and Storm, R.M. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Russell, A. P., G. L. Powell, and D. R. Hall. 1996. Growth and age of Alberta long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei): a comparison of two methods of estimation. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 397-412.
Shaffer, H.B., Clark, J.M. and Kraus, F. 1991. When molecules and morphology clash: a phylogenetic analysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Systematic Zoology: 284-303.
Smith, H.M. 1978. A Guide to Field Identification: Amphibians of North America. Golden Press, New York, NY, USA.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Tallmon, D.A., Funk, W.C., Dunlap, W.W. and Allendorf, F.W. 2000. Genetic differentiation among long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) populations. Copeia: 27-35.
Tyler, T.J., Liss, W.J., Hoffman, R.L. and Ganio, L.M. 1998. Experimental analysis of trout effects on survival, growth, and habitat use of two species of ambystomatid salamanders. Journal of Herpetology: 345-349.
Tyler, T., Liss, W.J., Ganio, L.M., Larson, G.L., Hoffman, R., Deimling, E., and Lomnicky, G. 1998. Interaction between introduced trout and larval salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in high-elevation lakes. Conservation Biology: 94-105.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress.
Walsh, R. 1998. An extension of the known range of the long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist: 331-333.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Ambystoma macrodactylum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.|
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