|Scientific Name:||Spea intermontana|
|Species Authority:||(Cope, 1883)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Garcia-Paris et al. (2003) used mtDNA to examine the phylogentic relationships of Pelobatoidea and found that the family Pelobatidae, as previously defined, is not monophyletic (Pelobates is sister to Megophryidae, not to Spea/Scaphiopus). They separated the Pelobatidae into two families: Eurasian spadefoot toads (Pelobates), which retain the name Pelobatidae; and North American spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus, Spea), which make up the revived family Scaphiopodidae.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species can be in Southern British Columbia, Canada (Cannings 1999) southward in the USA through central and eastern Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho, eastern California, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and northwestern Colorado to northwestern Arizona (Hall 1998). It can be found from the edge of Cascade-Sierra axis east to the Rockies. It is found at elevations of about 850m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread and locally abundant. Range size and population levels are relatively stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found mainly in sagebrush flats, semi-desert shrublands, pinyon-juniper woodland. Digs its own burrow in loose soil or uses those of small mammals. Breeds in temporary or permanent water, including rain pools, pools in intermittent streams, and flooded areas along streams. Eggs are attached to vegetation in water or placed on bottom of pool.|
|Major Threat(s):||Most of its habitat is not subject to incompatible uses or major threats.|
|Conservation Actions:||No conservation measures are needed. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Cannings, R.J. 1999. Wildlife in British Columbia at risk: Great Basin spadefoot toad. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria.
Hall, J.A. 1998. Scaphiopus intermontanus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-17.
Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Species at Risk Branch. 2002. Species at Risk Range Maps. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. (http://www.sis.ec.gc.ca/download_e.htm), Ottawa.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Wiens, J.J. and Titus, T.A. 1991. A phylogenetic analysis of Spea (Anura: Pelobatidae). Herpetologica: 21-28.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Spea intermontana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 December 2014.|
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