Raorchestes chalazodes


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Raorchestes chalazodes
Species Authority: (Günther, 1876)
Ixalus chalazodes Günther, 1876
Philautus chalazodes (Günther, 1876)
Pseudophilautus chalazodes (Günther, 1876)
Taxonomic Notes: Bossuyt and Dubois (2001) suggested that this species could be a synonym of Ixalus beddomii Günther, 1876. However, recent studies indicate that both species are distinct (S.D. Biju pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): S.D. Biju, Sushil Dutta, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, S.P. Vijayakumar, Chelmala Srinivasulu
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Critically Endangered, because its Extent of Occurrence of less than 100 km2, its Area of Occupancy is less than 10 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from Munnar, Kerala, on the south-western slopes of the Cardamom Hills, Kerala (S.D. Biju pers. comm.), in India. The exact location of the type locality of Travancore is non-specific. It was collected at an altitude of 1,400m asl. Because of difficulties with identification, there is a need to reconfirm records of this species from outside the Cardomom Hills area. This includes records from the Parambikulum Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala, and from the Anaimalai Hills in Tamil Nadu, all of which appear to be doubtful (S.D. Biju pers. comm.).
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species was rediscovered after 125 years (Biju and Bossuyt 2003), and is considered to be locally common at its only known locality.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a nocturnal, arboreal species associated with the understorey of tropical moist evergreen forest; it can also occur in secondary or disturbed habitat. It is believed to breed by direct development.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by the conversion of natural forest to intensively cultivated areas (including non-timber plantations).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known with certainty from any protected areas, and improved protection of remaining habitat in the range of this species is recommended. Field studies including this species are ongoing (Biju 2001 and onwards).

Bibliography [top]

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Bossuyt, F. and Dubois, A. 2001. A review of the frog genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Zeylanica: 1-112.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Günther, A. 1876. Third report on collection of Indian reptiles obtained by British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 567-577.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Radhakrishnan, C. 1996. Amphibians of the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. Cobra: 10-17.

Citation: S.D. Biju, Sushil Dutta, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, S.P. Vijayakumar, Chelmala Srinivasulu 2004. Raorchestes chalazodes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.
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