Raorchestes chalazodes 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Raorchestes chalazodes
Species Authority: (Günther, 1876)
Ixalus chalazodes Günther, 1876
Philautus chalazodes (Günther, 1876)
Pseudophilautus chalazodes (Günther, 1876)
Taxonomic Notes: Bossuyt and Dubois (2001) suggested that this species could be a synonym of Ixalus beddomii Günther, 1876. However, recent studies indicate that both species are distinct (S.D. Biju pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): S.D. Biju, Sushil Dutta, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, S.P. Vijayakumar, Chelmala Srinivasulu
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Critically Endangered, because its Extent of Occurrence of less than 100 km2, its Area of Occupancy is less than 10 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from Munnar, Kerala, on the south-western slopes of the Cardamom Hills, Kerala (S.D. Biju pers. comm.), in India. The exact location of the type locality of Travancore is non-specific. It was collected at an altitude of 1,400m asl. Because of difficulties with identification, there is a need to reconfirm records of this species from outside the Cardomom Hills area. This includes records from the Parambikulum Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala, and from the Anaimalai Hills in Tamil Nadu, all of which appear to be doubtful (S.D. Biju pers. comm.).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species was rediscovered after 125 years (Biju and Bossuyt 2003), and is considered to be locally common at its only known locality.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a nocturnal, arboreal species associated with the understorey of tropical moist evergreen forest; it can also occur in secondary or disturbed habitat. It is believed to breed by direct development.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by the conversion of natural forest to intensively cultivated areas (including non-timber plantations).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known with certainty from any protected areas, and improved protection of remaining habitat in the range of this species is recommended. Field studies including this species are ongoing (Biju 2001 and onwards).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Bossuyt, F. and Dubois, A. 2001. A review of the frog genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Zeylanica: 1-112.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Günther, A. 1876. Third report on collection of Indian reptiles obtained by British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 567-577.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

Radhakrishnan, C. 1996. Amphibians of the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. Cobra: 10-17.

Citation: S.D. Biju, Sushil Dutta, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, S.P. Vijayakumar, Chelmala Srinivasulu. 2004. Raorchestes chalazodes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T58829A11847257. . Downloaded on 28 April 2017.
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