Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Pseudophilautus caeruleus
Species Authority: (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005)
Philautus caeruleus Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, and its Area of Occupancy is less than 500 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in the Central Hill Country of Sri Lanka.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Peak Wilderness and the Central Hill Country of south-western Sri Lanka, and has been recorded from 810-1,370m asl. It is currently known from only two sites, but is likely to occur more widely than current records suggest (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Sri Lanka
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is a rare species.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is terrestrial, and has been observed in closed-canopy habitats, both in disturbed and undisturbed forests. Adults are strictly nocturnal; males have been observed perching on branches of low shrubs 20-50cm above ground (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 2005). It breeds by direct development, and is not dependent on water. The female excavates a deep hole in the forest floor where the eggs are then deposited.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is some encroachment of the forest habitat of this species, mainly for tea cultivation and firewood collection, and it is potentially at risk from agro-chemicals. The area is also subject to disturbance by visiting pilgrims.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is found in the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Bahir, M.M., Meegaskumbura, M., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Schneider, C.J. and Pethiyagoda, R. 2005. Reproduction and terrestrial direct development in Sri Lankan shrub frogs. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology: 339-350.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. and Pethiyagoda, R. 2005. The Sri Lankan shrub-frogs of the genus Philautus Laurent, 1943 (Ranidae, Rhacophorinae), with description of 27 new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement: 163-303.

Citation: Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda. 2004. Pseudophilautus caeruleus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T58825A11846499. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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