|Scientific Name:||Gephyromantis horridus|
|Species Authority:||(Boettger, 1880)|
Arthroleptis horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Hemimantis horrida Boettger, 1880
Laurentomantis horrida (Boettger, 1880)
Mantidactylus horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Trachymantis horrida (Boettger, 1880)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species was revised by Vences et al. (2002).
It was described from Nosy Be Island over 100 years ago and never seen there again (many species have Nosy Be as their type locality because an important port was situated there, but those species never actually occurred on the island and this record of G. horridus was suspected to one such mistake; however, the natural history museum in Vienna traced a specimen collected by Brancsik in 1890 from the island confirming that the species actually occured on Nosy Be (Glaw and Vences 2011).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Andreone, F. & Glaw, F.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Luedtke, J. & Hobin, L.|
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is10,661 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented and occurs in three threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in northern Madagascar.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is known only from northern Madagascar at Montagne d'Ambre, Tsaratanana and Nosy Be Island, between 300-1,400 m asl. However no modern records of this species have been made from Nosy Be (F. Glaw pers. comm. November 2015). Following Vences et al. (2002), records from eastern Madagascar are not considered here. It is known from three threat-defined locations, and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 10,661 km2.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a rare species with very few records and its population size is unknown. However, its population is thought to be severely fragmented as it occurs in three isolated sub-populations between which dispersal is very difficult or impossible. Due to ongoing declines in the extent and quality of the habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits lowland and montane rainforest, and is not found in disturbed areas. It probably breeds by direct development, but this requires confirmation.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
The major threat is habitat loss due to subsistence agriculture, timber extraction, charcoal manufacture, the invasive spread of eucalyptus, livestock grazing, and expanding human settlements.
Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al., 2015).
It occurs in at least two protected areas: Tsaratanana Strict Nature Reserve and Montagne d'Ambre National Park.
Bletz, M.C., Rosa, G.M., Andreone, F., Courtois, E.A., Schmeller, D.S., Rabibisoa, N.H.C, Rabemananjara, F.C.E., Raharivololoniaina, L., Vences, M., Weldon, C., Edmonds, D., Raxworthy, C.J., Harris, R.N., Fisher, M.C. and Crottini, A. 2015. Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar. Scientific Reports 5(8633): 1-10.
Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. and Blanc, C.P. 1991. Amphibiens (première partie). Fauna de Madagascar 75: 1-379.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Second Edition. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.
Glaw, F., and Vences, M. 2011. Description of a new frog species of Gephyromantis (subgenus Laurentomantis) with tibial glands from Madagascar. Spixiana München 34: 121-127.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of the amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals at Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation 69: 65-73.
Vences, M., Glaw, F., Andreone, F., Jesu, R. and Schimmenti, G. 2002. Systematic revision of the enigmatic Malagasy broad-headed frogs (Laurentomantis Dubois, 1980), and their phylogenetic position within the endemic mantellid radiation of Madagascar. Contributions to Zoology 70: 191-212.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Gephyromantis horridus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T57489A84172510.Downloaded on 23 January 2017.|
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