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Gephyromantis horridus 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Mantellidae

Scientific Name: Gephyromantis horridus
Species Authority: (Boettger, 1880)
Common Name(s):
English Boettger's Grainy Frog
Synonym(s):
Arthroleptis horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Hemimantis horrida Boettger, 1880
Laurentomantis horrida (Boettger, 1880)
Mantidactylus horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Trachymantis horrida (Boettger, 1880)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: This species was revised by Vences et al. (2002).

It was described from Nosy Be Island over 100 years ago and never seen there again (many species have Nosy Be as their type locality because an important port was situated there, but those species never actually occurred on the island and this record of G. horridus was suspected to one such mistake; however, the natural history museum in Vienna traced a specimen collected by Brancsik in 1890 from the island confirming that the species actually occured on Nosy Be (Glaw and Vences 2011).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-11-27
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Andreone, F. & Glaw, F.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Luedtke, J. & Hobin, L.
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is10,661 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented and occurs in three threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in northern Madagascar.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from northern Madagascar at Montagne d'Ambre, Tsaratanana and Nosy Be Island, between 300-1,400 m asl. However no modern records of this species have been made from Nosy Be (F. Glaw pers. comm. November 2015). Following Vences et al. (2002), records from eastern Madagascar are not considered here. It is known from three threat-defined locations, and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 10,661 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Number of Locations:3
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a rare species with very few records and its population size is unknown. However, its population is thought to be severely fragmented as it occurs in three isolated sub-populations between which dispersal is very difficult or impossible. Due to ongoing declines in the extent and quality of the habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits lowland and montane rainforest, and is not found in disturbed areas. It probably breeds by direct development, but this requires confirmation.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is habitat loss due to subsistence agriculture, timber extraction, charcoal manufacture, the invasive spread of eucalyptus, livestock grazing, and expanding human settlements.

Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al., 2015).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in at least two protected areas: Tsaratanana Strict Nature Reserve and Montagne d'Ambre National Park.

Conservation Needed
Improved protection and management of forests throughout the region is required, including within the boundaries of protected areas.

Research Needed
Further research is required to clarify the species' distribution - especially surveys to establish its presence on Nosy Be - its population size and trends, and is essential to fully understand the distribution, origin, type and virulence of Bd lineages found in Madagascar (Bletz et al., 2015).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.4. Problematic species/disease of unknown origin -> 8.4.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Unknown ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Bletz M.C., Rosa G.M., Andreone F., Courtois E.A., Schmeller D.S., Rabibisoa N.H.C, Rabemananjara F.C.E., Raharivololoniaina L., Vences M., Weldon C., Edmonds D., Raxworthy C.J., Harris R.N., Fisher M.C. and Crottini A. 2015. Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar. Scientific Reports 5(8633): 1-10.

Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. and Blanc, C.P. 1991. Amphibiens (première partie). Fauna de Madagascar 75: 1-379.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Second Edition. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

Glaw, F., and Vences, M. 2011. Description of a new frog species of Gephyromantis (subgenus Laurentomantis) with tibial glands from Madagascar. Spixiana München 34: 121-127.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of the amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals at Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation 69: 65-73.

Vences, M., Glaw, F., Andreone, F., Jesu, R. and Schimmenti, G. 2002. Systematic revision of the enigmatic Malagasy broad-headed frogs (Laurentomantis Dubois, 1980), and their phylogenetic position within the endemic mantellid radiation of Madagascar. Contributions to Zoology 70: 191-212.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Gephyromantis horridus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T57489A84172510. . Downloaded on 28 September 2016.
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