Mantella viridis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Mantellidae

Scientific Name: Mantella viridis
Species Authority: Pintak & Böhme, 1988
Common Name(s):
English Green Golden Frog, Green Mantella, Lime Mantella
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C.J. & Vences, M.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in several localities in extreme northern Madagascar, including Fôret d’Ambre Special Reserve (D'Cruze et al. 2008), Montagne des Français, Antogombato, Andranotsymaty, Antsahampano, Ivovona, Anjiabe, Andoajampoana, Mangoaka, Antsiranana, Ankitsakalaninaombi, Daraina, Mahavavona, Joffreville, Francom and the island of Nosy Hara. There are records from 5 to 959m asl, though most records are below 300m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):5
Upper elevation limit (metres):959
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a common species, albeit very localized.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a terrestrial species of deciduous dry forest on karst landscape, usually found near temporary brooks and streams, where it breeds. It can survive in degraded habitats to some extent (see D'Cruze et al. 2007), but it needs shade and good vegetation cover. Andreone et al. (2006) mention animals being found within extended mango plantations.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Andreone et al. (2006) suggest that collection for the international pet trade could easily be continued with an export quota of 1,000 animals per year.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is habitat loss, due to the impacts of fires, selective logging and the collection of firewood, and livestock grazing; it is also affected by the subsequent permanent drying out of smaller streams following forest loss. It has been recorded in the pet trade in relatively large numbers, although this is now greatly reduced.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has recently been recorded from the Fôret d’Ambre Special Reserve (D'Cruze et al. 2008). The Montagne des Français has been granted Temporary Protected Area Status (the first of three steps necessary to create a permanently protected area) (D'Cruze et al. 2007). It is listed on CITES Appendix II. Increased protection and maintenance of the remaining habitat is needed. Any future trade in this species should be carefully regulated. It is maintained in captivity in several facilities outside Madagascar. Research is needed to establish the taxonomic status of populations to the south-west of the type locality.

Classifications [top]

14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Andreone, F. 2004. Conservazione, utilizzo e commercio in tre specie di anfibi minacciati del Madagascar, Mantella cowani, Mantella expectata e Scaphiophryne gottlebei. V° Congresso Nazionale della Societas Herpetologica Italica. Programma e riassunti, 4. Calci -Pisa.

Andreone, F., Cadle, J.E., Cox, N., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Stuart, S.N., Vallan, D. and Vences, M. 2005. A species review of amphibian extinction risks in Madagascar: results from the Global Amphibian Assessment. Conservation Biology: 1790-1802.

Andreone, F., Cox, N., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N.A.C., Randriamahazo, H., Randrianasolo, H., Raxworthy, C.J., Stuart, S., Vallan, D. and Vences, M. 2008. Update of the Global Amphibian Assessment for Malagasy amphibians in light of new species discoveries, taxonomic changes, and new field information. In: F. Andreone (ed.), A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar, Monografie del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, 419-436.

Andreone, F., Guarino, F.M., Mattioli, F. and Mercurio, V. 2005. Threatened and traded frogs of Madagascar: novel natural history and distribution traits for the conservation of Mantella cowani, M. expectata, M. viridis and Scaphiophryne gottlebei. 13th Ordinary general meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica. Programme and Abstract: 24-25. Bonn.

Andreone, F., Mercurio, V. and Mattioli, F. 2006. Between environmental degradation and international pet trade: conservation strategies for the threatened amphibians of Madagascar. Natura – Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, (Milano, Italy) 95(2): 81-96.

D'Cruze, N., Köhler, J., Franzen, M. and Glaw, F. 2008. A conservation assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of the Foret d'Ambre Special Reserve, Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation and Development 3(1): 44-54.

D'Cruze, N., Sabel, J., Green, K., Dawson, J., Gardner, C., Robinson, J., Starkie, G., Vences, M. and Glaw, F. 2007. The first comprehensive survey of amphibians and reptiles at Montagne des Français, Madagascar. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 2: 87-99.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Second Edition. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jovanovic, O., Rabemananjara, F., Ramilijaona, O., Andreone, F., Glaw, F. and Vnces, M. 2006. Frogs of Madagascar, Genus Mantella. Pocket Identification Guide. Conservation International. Tropical Pocket Guide Series, Washington DC.

Pintak, T. and Böhme, W. 1988. Mantella viridis s.n. aus Nord-Madagaskar. Salamandra: 119-124.

Rabemananjara, F.C.E., Crottini, A., Chiari, Y., Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Duguet, R., Bora, P., Ravohangimalala Ramilijaona, O. and Vences, M. 2007. Molecular systematics of Malagasy poison frogs in the Mantella betsileo and M. laevigata species groups. Zootaxa 1501: 31-44.

Staniszewski, M. 2001. Mantellas. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Vences, M., Glaw, F. and Böhme, W. 1999. A review of the genus Mantella (Anura, Ranidae, Mantellinae): taxonomy, distribution and conservation of the Malagasy poison frogs. Alytes 17: 3-72.

Vences, M., Glaw, F., Mausfeld, P. and Böhme, W. 1998. Comparative osteology of Malagasy poison frogs of the genus Mantella (Amphibia: Reptilia: Mantellidae). Bonner Zoologische Beiträege 48: 205-215.

Zimmermann, H. 1992. Nachzucht und Schutz von Mantella crocea, Mantella viridis und vom madagassischen Goldfroschchen Mantella aurantiaca. Zeitschrift des Kolner Zoo: 165-171.

Citation: Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C.J. & Vences, M. 2008. Mantella viridis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T57451A11641977. . Downloaded on 25 May 2017.
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