|Scientific Name:||Crocodylus siamensis Schneider, 1801|
Crocodilus planirostris Graves, 1819
Crocodilus galeatus Cuvier, 1807
The only known extant population of C. siamensis outside mainland Southeast Asia, located in East Kalimantan Province (Indonesian Borneo), is genetically distinct and considered an ‘Evolutionarily Significant Unit’ (Gratten 2003).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bezuijen, M., Simpson, B., Behler, N., Daltry, J. & Tempsiripong, Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Manolis, C. & Stuebing, R.|
Crocodylus siamensis is among the most threatened crocodilians. In 1992 it was reported as virtually extinct in the wild (Thorbjarnarson 1992) and in 1996 was accorded the IUCN Red List status of ‘Critically Endangered' (Baillie and Groombridge 1996). This status remains unchanged. Field surveys, nearly all conducted since 2000, have confirmed that extant populations persist, but that all are severely diminished and fragmented. Over the past decade new information on the ecology of the species has been documented, although C. siamensis remains one of the least known crocodilians. Commercial hunting for the skin trade and collection of live animals to stock crocodile farms, in the mid- and late-twentieth century respectively, are considered to be the principal causes for its decline. Current threats include illegal collection of eggs, juveniles and adults, habitat loss, incidental capture with fishing gear, and the inherent vulnerability of remnant populations due to their small size.This species qualifies as Critically Endangered. Global populations have been severely reduced, almost certainly by over 80% in the past 75 years / three generations (assuming a generation time of 25 years), principally due to hunting. All remnant subpopulations are small and fragmented. Most current threats, including illegal collection and habitat loss or degradation, are ongoing, suggesting that without conservation interventions, extant populations will continue to decline.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Crocodylus siamensis historically occurred over much of mainland Southeast Asia as well as parts of Indonesia. Its current distribution is greatly diminished and fragmented. Extant populations are in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. In Viet Nam, wild populations are possibly extirpated, the first range nation where this has occurred, although a reintroduction programme has been implemented in one site (see below). Most locations occur between 50 and 200 m elevation but localities in Cambodia at Veal Ven Marsh (560 m; Daltry et al. 2003) and the upper Tatai River (730 m; B. Simpson pers. comm.) are higher. Summaries of national distribution are as follows.
Lao PDR: Field surveys conducted between 2003 and 2008; confirmed C. siamensis localities are from nine river systems in five provinces, but extant populations are known from only seven river systems in four provinces (Bezuijen et al. in press). Surveys confirmed previous reports (Salter 1993, Sawathvong 1994) that many local populations are now extirpated. Extant populations are in the Xe Champhone, Xe Banghiang, Xe Bangfai and Xe Xangxoy river systems (Savannakhet Province), Xe Pian-Xe Khampho river systems (Attapu Province), Xe Don River (Salavan Province) and Phou Khaokhouay National Protected Area (Bolikhamxay Province) (Bezuijen et al. in press). Most wetlands in Lao PDR remain unsurveyed for crocodiles and it seems likely that other C. siamensis localities will be documented.
Malaysia: A single reference to a ‘fresh-water crocodile’ in northern Peninsular Malaysia (Robinson and Annandale 1904 cited by Smith 1919) was considered by Smith (1919) to be ‘probably referable to this species’. There are no known records from Sarawak or Sabah (Sebastian 1993). There is no other information to suggest that C. siamensis occurred in Malaysia.
Viet Nam: Historically present in southern Viet Nam (Cuc 1994, Cao and Jenkins 1998); wild populations possibly extirpated. Surveys over the past two decades have failed to detect crocodiles in sites they were reported to occur (Platt and Tri 2000, Stuart et al. 2002) except one site, Ha Lam Lake (Phu Yen Province), where at least two individuals were present in 2005 (Nguyen et al. 2005). A single reintroduced population is at Cat Tien National Park (Polet 2006, Murphy et al. 2004), where breeding occurs (J. Thorbjarnarson in litt. July 2009, Pahl 2012).
Native:Cambodia; Indonesia (Jawa - Possibly Extinct, Kalimantan); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
No global population estimate is available for C. siamensis and national population estimates are available for only one range state, Cambodia. Between 100 and 300 wild adults may remain in Cambodia, based on footprints and other evidence (Simpson and Han 2006a, Simpson and Bezuijen 2010 and references therein). Lao PDR may support a similar number of adults (Bezuijen et al. in press). The largest known population at any single site is 55-60 individuals, in Cambodia (Starr et al. 2010), but in both nations most known sites support only one or several individuals. In Thailand, one to several individuals persist in a small number of scattered localities, and nests are sometimes documented (Platt et al. 2002, J. Thorbjarnarson in litt. cited in Bezuijen et al. in press). In Viet Nam, the species may have been extirpated from the wild but a reintroduced population based on 60 individuals released between 2001-2004 at Cat Tien National Park had an estimated population of 100-150 individuals in 2010-2011. A maximum of 80 non-hatchlings was observed and 10-15 adults estimated (Pahl 2012). At Mesangat Lake in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, mark-recapture surveys in 2010-2011 indicated that fewer than 30 individuals may be present, although nearby areas remain unsurveyed (N. Behler unpubl. data).
Wild nests and successful recruitment (i.e. presence of hatchlings) have been documented in all range states, but in low numbers. In Cambodia, nesting has been recorded at 10 localities in eight provinces since 2001, but the number of nest sites is declining and only one to three nests are documented annually (Simpson et al. 2006a). Veal Veng Marsh and the Areng River, both in the Cardamom Mountains, hold the largest wild populations, and each produces one to three nests annually (J.C. Daltry unpubl. data). In Lao PDR, nesting has been documented at eight localities but successful recruitment was confirmed at only five sites (Bezuijen et al. in press). Of four clutches examined in Lao PDR, three were infertile (Bezuijen et al. in press), indicating low female fertility and/or the absence of males. In Thailand, fewer than five wild nests and few hatchlings have been recorded over the past five years, suggesting low clutch fertility (J. Thorbjarnarson in litt. cited by Bezuijen et al. in press; Y. Temsiripong unpubl. data). In Viet Nam, hatchlings observed at Cat Tien National Park in 2010-2011 confirm that breeding persists there (Pahl 2012). At Lake Mesangat in Indonesia, juvenile crocodiles have been observed and one nest has been located (N. Behler unpubl. data).
On the basis of these limited data, the global wild population of C. siamensis may comprise fewer than 1,000 mature individuals.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Crocodylus siamensis occurs in a wide range of lowland freshwater habitats, including slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, seasonal oxbow lakes, marshes and swamps (Smith 1931; Daltry et al. 2003; Platt et al. 2002, 2006; Bezuijen et al. in press). During the wet season, individuals disperse across ﬂooded landscapes (one radio-tracked individual in Cambodia moved up to 25 km before returning to a dry season site; Simpson et al. 2006b). The species has been recorded up to 600 m elevation (Daltry et al. 2003).|
Other scientific studies of C. siamensis have included information on phylogeography and population genetics (Gratten 2003), seasonal sperm cycles (Kitiyanant et al. 1994) and the antimicrobial properties of its blood (Merchant et al. 2006). Hybridization of captive C. siamensis with C. rhombifer and C. porosus occurs (Chavananikul et al. 1994, Thang 1994), and the chromosome number of C. siamensis and hybrids, as well as DNA methods to distinguish them, has been identiﬁed (Youngprapakorn 1991, Fitzsimmons et al. 2002, Srikulnath et al. 2012)...
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||25|
|Use and Trade:||
Crocodylus siamensis is listed under Appendix I of CITES. The species is well represented in captivity, with possibly one million individuals in farms in Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam (Temsiripong et al. 2004; Jelden et al. 2005, 2008), and smaller numbers in farms in China and zoos in Europe and North America. In Thailand, 799 farms were operating in 2010 (Getpech 2011). Getpech (2011) reports 552,000 captive specimens in 2010 for Thailand, Sovannara (2011) reports 257,000 in Cambodia, and Truyen (2011) reports 584,000 in Viet Nam. Caldwell (2010) reports 63,500 skins in international trade in 2008. The UNEP-WCMC trade database indicates much higher levels of international trade in more recent years (e.g. in live animals and skins). In 2010, Thailand alone reported exports of 106,039 “heads” (see Getpech 2011). However, the captive population in Indochina includes an unknown number of individuals hybridized with C. porosus and C. rhombifer, including back-crosses (Chavananikul et al. 1994, Thang 1994, FitzSimmons et al. 2002, Jelden et al. 2008). In Cambodia, more than 900 local crocodile farms or raising facilities with C. siamensis are present, mostly at the Tonle Sap Great Lake (Jelden et al. 2005, Sovannara 2011). Testing has revealed that many C. siamensis on farms in Cambodia are hybrids, and animals from Cambodia have in turn been used to stock farms in neighbouring countries (J.C. Daltry unpubl. data). In southern Viet Nam, over 1,000 crocodile farms and raising facilities with almost exclusively C. siamensis are present (Jelden et al. 2008, Truyen 2011). In Lao PDR, the only known captive population is at Ban Kuen Zoo, which contains around 1,000 individuals, most of which are suspected to be hybrids (Phothitay et al. 2005, Cox and Phothitay 2008).
Opportunistic collection of eggs or crocodiles continues in Cambodia, either for local use or sale to crocodile farms (Simpson et al. 2006). In Lao PDR, infrequent and low-level trade of captive crocodiles or products has been recorded, although surveys between 2003 and 2008 did not detect any evidence of trade (Bezuijen et al. in press). At Cat Tien National Park in Viet Nam, crocodiles are hunted for local consumption (see Threats) but apparently not for trade (Pahl 2012). No hunting or trade of C. siamensis has been observed at Lake Mesangat in Indonesia, although it is possible that local residents sometimes collect eggs (N. Behler unpubl. data).
Commercial hunting in the mid-twentieth century for the skin trade is considered to be the principal cause for the historical decline of C. siamensis. Current and ongoing threats in virtually all range states include the illegal collection of eggs and crocodiles, habitat loss and degradation, and incidental capture/drowning in ﬁshing gear. In Cambodia, most river systems with extant C. siamensis are targeted for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Construction of some of these dams has already begun and has resulted in the loss of breeding habitat and increased collection and killing of crocodiles (J.C. Daltry unpubl. data). Illegal capture of wild crocodiles to supply local crocodile farms continues in Cambodia. In Viet Nam, over 19 crocodiles were apparently poached at Cat Tien National Park between 2001 and 2012, mainly for local consumption (Murphy et al. 2004, Pahl 2012).
Potential threats in some or all range states include climate change, the potential hybridization of wild populations due to inter-breeding with escaped hybrids, and the risk of genetic depression due to severely low numbers (Jelden et al. 2005, 2008; Bezuijen et al. in press). Viet Nam appears to be the first range state where wild C. siamensis has been extirpated; in 2006, the last known site to support wild C. siamensis (Ha Lam Lake in Phu Yen Province; Nguyen et al. 2005) was flooded for construction of a hydroelectric dam. At Mesangat Lake in Indonesia, key threats to C. siamensis are the incidental capture of crocodiles in fishing gear and disturbance due to electro-fishing activities (N. Behler unpubl. data).
Most conservation efforts for C. siamensis were initiated in the past decade and are relatively recent. More conservation work for the species has been conducted in Cambodia than any other range state, including extensive status surveys and a long-term programme by the Government of Cambodia’s Forestry Administration and Fauna & Flora International. This programme has achieved the monitoring and protection of breeding sites, training of ranger patrols, and community-based conservation initiatives (Daltry et al. 2006, Simpson and Ratanapich 2007, Simpson et al. 2006a). Veal Veng Marsh, the Areng River, and the Sre Ambel/ Kampong Saom River are the focus of enforcement patrols and community-based conservation management, which have demonstrated success in reducing poaching since 2001 (Daltry et al. 2006, Simpson and Ratanapich 2007, Simpson et al. 2006a, Oum et al. 2010). Additional community sanctuaries are planned in northeast Cambodia and a national re-introduction program will be launched in 2012 (Daltry and Starr 2010, Siamese Crocodile Task Force in prep.).
Elsewhere, status surveys were conducted in Lao PDR between 2003 and 2008, conservation priorities were identified (Bezuijen et al. in press) and a management plan to protect breeding sites was prepared for one province (Cox and Somvongsa 2008). Community workshops were held in 2006 and 2007 to document local knowledge of crocodiles (Bezuijen et al. 2006, Mollot et al. 2007). Most C. siamensis localities in Lao PDR are outside the national protected area system and conservation will rely on community-based approaches. In Thailand, a re-introduction programme was initiated by the Royal Thai Forest Service and Crocodile Management Association of Thailand, with 20 crocodiles released in Pang Sida National Park in 2005 and 2006 (Temsiripong 2001, 2007). Few crocodiles were detected during subsequent monitoring (Temsiripong 2007) and further releases are being considered. Severe flooding in Thailand in 2011 hindered the implementation of some re-introduction plans (Y. Temsiripong pers. obs.). In Viet Nam, 60 captive individuals were released in Cat Tien National Park between 2001 and 2004 (Polet 2006) and the population has been irregularly monitored since then. The most recent surveys (2010-2011) confirmed that the population has increased in size, but that crocodiles continue to be hunted by local residents (Pahl 2012). In Indonesia, Mesangat Lake is owned by an oil palm company, and in 2010 the company entered into a partnership with a local foundation, Yayasan Ulin, to jointly manage habitats at the lake (R. Stuebing in litt.).
The large captive populations of C. siamensis held on farms (see Use and Trade) represent a potential source for re-introduction programs, and farms in Thailand and Viet Nam have donated C. siamensis for this purpose. Genetically pure C. siamensis have been found in captive holdings in Cambodia (Starr et al. 2009), Thailand (Srikulnath et al. 2012) and Viet Nam (Fitzsimmons et al. 2002).
At the invitation of range states, the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group has conducted reviews and recommendations for the trade and management of captive C. siamensis and other crocodilians, in Cambodia (Jelden et al. 2005), Indonesia (Webb and Jenkins 1991a), Thailand (Webb and Jenkins 1991b) and Viet Nam (Jelden et al. 2008).
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Bezuijen, M.R. 2010. Crocodylus siamensis (Siamese Crocodile). Diet. Herpetological Review 41(1): 68-69.
Bezuijen, M.R., Cox, J.H., Thorbjarnarson, J.B., Phothitay, C., Hedemark, M. and Rasphone. in press 2012 . Status of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Schneider, 1801 (Reptilia:Crocodylia) in Laos. Journal of herpetology.
Bezuijen, M.R., Mollot, R. and Amath, B.L. 2006. Strengthening Siamese crocodile conservation through community participation in Lao PDR. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 25: 10-11.
Bezuijen, M.R., Phothitay, C., Hedemark, M. and Chanrya, S. 2006. Preliminary status review of the Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) (Crocodylia, Reptilia) in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Government of Lao PDR & Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane.
Bezuijen, M.R., Vinn, B. and Seng, L. 2009. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Mekong River, northeastern Cambodia. Hamadryad 34(1): 135-164.
Brazaitis, P. and Watanabe, M.E. 1983. Ultrasound scanning of Siamese crocodile eggs: Hello, are you in there? Journal of Herpetology 17: 286-287.
Caldwell, J. 2010. Trade in Crocodilian Skins, 2006-2008. UNEP-WCMC. Cambridge, UK. Available from: http://www.iucncsg.org/pages/Farming-and-the-Crocodile-Industry.html.
Cao, V.S. and Jenkins, R.W.G. 1998. Crocodile conservation and development in Vietnam. In: Crocodiles. The 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 135-140. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Chavananikul, V., Wattanodorn, S. and Youngprapakorn, P. 1994. Karyotypes of 5 species of crocodile kept in Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo. In: Crocodiles. The 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 58-62. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Cox, J.H. 2004. Status and conservation of the Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). In: Crocodiles. The 17th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 150-154. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Cox, J.H. and Somvongsa, C. 2008. Community-based Crocodile Resource Management Plan for Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (ﬁnal draft). OZ Minerals Ltd. & Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane.
Cox, J.H., Frazier, R. and Maturbongs, R. 1993. Freshwater crocodilians of Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Copeia 1993(2): 564-566.
Cox Jr., J.H. and Phothitay, C. 2008. Surveys of the Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis in Vavannakhet Province, Lao PDR, 6 May-4 June 2008. OZ Minerals Ltd. & Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane.
Crocodile Specialist Group. 2012. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucncsg.org/.
Cuc, H.T. 1994. Status and conservation of crocodiles in Vietnam. In: Crocodiles. The 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 28-34. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Dacey, T. 2008. Rapid survey of Siamese crocodile and Tomistoma in East Kalimantan. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 27(2): 23-24.
Daltry, J.C. and Chheang, D. 2000. Siamese crocodiles discovered in the Cardamom Mountains. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 19: 7-8.
Daltry, J.C. and Starr, A. 2010. Development of a re-introduction and reinforcement programme for Siamese crocodiles in Cambodia. In: P. Soorae (ed.), Global Re-introduction Perspectives. Re-introduction Specialist Group and Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E., pp. 118-123.
Daltry, J.C., Chheang, D., Em, P., Poeung, M., Sam, H., Tan, T. and Simpson, B.K. 2003. Status of the Siamese Crocodile in the Central Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia. Fauna & Flora International: Cambodia Programme, and Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Phnom Penh.
Daltry, J.C., Hor, L. and Keo, N. 2006. Community-based conservation of Siamese crocodiles in Cambodia. In: Crocodiles. The 18th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 186. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Fitzsimmons, N.N., Buchan, J.C., Lam, P.V., Polet, G., Hung, T.T., Thang, N.Q. and Gratten, J. 2002. Identiﬁcation of purebred Crocodylus siamensis for reintroduction in Vietnam. Journal of Experimental Zoology 294: 373-381.
Garnier, F. 1996. Further Travels in Laos and Yunnan. The Mekong Exploration Commission Report (1866-1868). Volume 2. (Translated and with an introduction by W.E.J. Tips). White Lotus, Bangkok.
Getpech, Y. 2011. Crocodile conservation and captive breeding in Thailand. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the First Regional Species Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, pp. 27-28. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin, Australia.
Gratten, J. 2003. The Molecular Systematics, Phylogeography and Population Genetics of Indo-Paciﬁc Crocodylus. Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland.
Groombridge, B. 1982. The IUCN Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book, Part 1: Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynocehapalia. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (Accessed: 30 September).
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Jelden, D.C., Manolis, C., Giam, H., Thomson, J. and Lopez, A. 2005. Crocodile Conservation and Management in Cambodia: a Review with Recommendations. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin.
Jelden, D.C., Manolis, C., Tsubouchi, T. and Nguyen Dao, N.V. 2008. Crocodile Conservation, Management and Farming in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: a Review with Recommendations. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin.
Kitiyanant, Y., Youngprapakorn, P., Songthaveesin, C., Tocharus, C., Jaruansuwan, M., Junprasert, S. and Pavasuthipaisit, K. 1994. Seasonal changes of sperm morphology and reproductive tracts of Crocodylus siamensis. The 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: In: Crocodiles, pp. 268-275. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Kreetiyutanont, K. 1993. Siamese crocodile (C. siamensis) in Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 41: 135-137.
Kurniati, H., Widodo, T. and Manolis, C. 2005. Surveys of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) habitat in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. LIPI, Bogor.
Merchant, M.E., Mills, K., Leger, N., Jerkins, E., Vliet, K.A. and McDaniel, N. 2006. Comparisons of innate immune activity of all known living crocodylian species. Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 143(2): 133-137.
Mollot, R., Khamphousay, S. and Amath, B.L. 2007. Update on Siamese crocodile conservation in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 26: 12-13.
Muin, A. and Ramono, W.S. 1994. Preliminary survey of Buaya Sumpit (Tomistoma schlegelii) and Buaya Kodok (Crocodylus siamensis) in East Kalimantan. Report to the Asian Conservation and Sustainable Use Group.
Murphy, D.J., Phan Duy Thuc and Nguyen Thanh Long. 2004. The Siamese crocodile re-establishment programme in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. 1999-2004. Technical Report No. 48. Cat Tien National Park Conservation Project.
Nguyen Xuan, V., Vu Ngoc, L., Simpson, B.K., Ngo Van, T., Lai Tung, Q., Huynh Xuan, Q. and Vo Van, D. 2005. Status of the freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) in Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, Vietnam. Institute of Tropical Biology and Fauna & Flora International: Cambodia Programme, Ho Chi Minh City.
Oum, S., Hor, L., Sam, H., Sonn, P., Simpson, B. and Daltry, J.C. 2009. A comparative study of incentive based schemes for Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis conservation in the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History: 40-57.
Pahl, K.R. 2012. The Natural History of the Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) in Cat Tien National Park, Viet Nam. Zoologisches Forschungsmueum Alexander Koenig, University of Bonn.
Phothitay, C., Phommachanh, B. and Bezuijen, M.R. 2005. Siamese crocodiles at Ban Kuen Zoo, Lao PDR. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 24(1): 11-12.
PHPA (Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation). 1997. Crocodile management program for Indonesia (revised). PHPA, Jakarta.
Platt, S.G. and Tri, N.V. 2000. Status of the Siamese crocodile in Vietnam. Oryx 34(3): 217-221.
Platt, S.G., Lynam, A.J., Temsiripong, Y. and Kampanakngarn, M. 2002. Occurrence of the Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 50(1): 7-14.
Platt, S.G., Monyrath, V., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L. and Rainwater, T.R. 2011. Nesting phenology and clutch characteristics of captive Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in Cambodia. Zoo Biology 30: 1-12.
Platt, S.G., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L., Stuart, B.L. and Walston, J. 2006. Crocodylus siamensis along the Sre Ambel River, southern Cambodia: habitat, nesting and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 9(2): 183- 188.
Platt, S.G., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L., Thorbjarnarson, J.B. and Rainwater, T.R. 2004. Population status and conservation of wild Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve, Cambodia. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 52(2): 133-149.
Polet, G. 2002. Crocodylus siamensis re-introduced in Cat Tien National Park. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 21(1): 9-10.
Polet, G. 2006. Re-introduced Siamese crocodiles in Cat Tien national Park, Vietnam are breeding! Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 25(2): 10-12.
Ratanakorn, P., Amget, B. and Ottley, P. 1994. Preliminary surveys of crocodiles in Thailand. In: Crocodiles. The 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 35-49. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Ratanakorn, P. and Leelapatra, W. 1994 (dated October 1997). Thailand National Crocodilian Management Plan. Draft.
Ross, C.A. 1986. Comments on Indopaciﬁc crocodile distributions. In: Crocodiles. The 7th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 349-353. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Ross, C.A. 1990. Crocodylus raninus S. Müller and Schlegel, a valid species of crocodile (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) from Borneo. Proceedings of the Biological Society Washington 103(4): 955-961.
Ross, C.A. 1992. Designation of a lectotype for Crocodylus raninus S. Müller & Schlegel, 1844 (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), the Borneo crocodile. Proceedings of the Biological Society Washington 105(2): 400-402.
Ross, C.A., Cox, J.H., Kurniati, H. and Frazier, S. 1998. Preliminary survey of palustrine crocodiles in Kalimantan. In: Crocodiles. The 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 46-79. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Salter, R.E. 1993. Wildlife in the Lao PDR. A Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Sawathvong, S. 1994. The status of crocodiles in the Lao PDR. Crocodiles; Proceedings of the 12th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN Gland, Switzerland: 16-23.
Sebastian, A.C. 1993. The crocodilians of Malaysia. In: Crocodiles. The 2nd Regional Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 445-460. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Siamese Crocodile Task Force. In prep. Siamese Crocodile Re-introduction and reinforcement strategy and action plan for the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia; 2011-2031. Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries/ Fauna and Flora International;-cambodia progamme., Phnon Penh, Cambodia.
Simpson, B.K. and Bezuijen, M.R. 2010. Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis. In: C. Manolis and C. Stevenson (eds), Crocodile. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Third edition, Crocodile Specialist Group (Available at: http://www.iucncsg.org/365_docs/attachments/protarea/20_C-637b6a34.pdf).
Simpson, B.K. and Han, S. 2004. Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) surveys in Cambodia. In: Crocodiles. The 17th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 110-120. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Simpson, B.K. and Ratanapich, N. 2007. Community-based crocodile conservation in Cambodia. National Museum Papers 14, pp. 180-189. National Museum of the Philippines, Manila.
Simpson, B.K., Chheang, D. and Han, S. 2006. The status of the Siamese crocodile in Cambodia. In: Crocodiles. The 18th Working Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 293-305. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Simpson, B.K., Sorn Piseth, Hor Leng, Chhun Sopheak and Daltry, J.C. 2006. Community Crocodile Wardens in Cambodia: performance, problems and potential. In: A. Lopez (ed.), MWBP working papers on Mekong populations of the Siamese Crocodile Crocodylus siamensis, MWBP, Vientianne.
Simpson, B.K., Sorn, P., Pheng, S., Pok, S., Sok, P. and Prumsoeun, W. 2006. Habitat use and movement of wild Siamese crocodiles in Cambodia. In: Crocodiles. The 18th Working Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 345. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Smith, M.A. 1919. Crocodylus siamensis. Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam 3: 217-222.
Smith, M.A. 1931. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. I. Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis, London.
Sovannara, H. 2011. Management and conservation of crocodiles in Cambodia. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the First Regional Species Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 29-32 . Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin, Australia.
Srikulnath, K., Thonpan, A., Supittitada, S. and Apisitwanich, S. 2012. New haplotype of the complete mitochondrial geneome of Crocodylus siamensis and its species-specific DNA markers distinguishing C.siamensis from C. porosus in Thailand. Molecular Biology Reports 39(4): 4709-4717 (DOI 10.1007/s11033-011-1263-7).
Starr, A., Daltry, J. and Ratanapich, N. 2009. DNA study reveals pure Siamese crocodiles at Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 28(4): 4-6.
Starr A., Han, S. and Daltry, J.C. 2010. 2010 monitoring and nest surveys reveal status and threats of community-protected Crocodylus siamensis sub-populations in Cambodia. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 29(4): 7-9.
Stuart, B.L., Hayes, B., Manh, B.H. and Platt, S.G. 2002. Status of crocodiles in the U Minh Thuong nature Reserve, southern Vietnam. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 62-65.
Stuebing, R. 2011. Yayasan Ulin. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the First Regional Species Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 43-44. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin, Australia.
Temisiripong, Y. 2006. Monitoring report of the ﬁrst pilot re-introduction of captive raised Siamese crocodiles in Thailand. Crocodile Management Association of Thailand Report.
Temsiripong, Y. 2001. Reintroduction of the Siamese Crocodile. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 20(1): 10-12.
Temsiripong, Y. 2003. Conservation status and progress report of the reintroduction program of the Siamese crocodile in Thailand. Crocodile Management Association of Thailand Report.
Temsiripong, Y. 2007. Re-introduction of captive raised Siamese crocodiles in Thailand. Re-introduction News 26: 55-57.
Temsiripong, Y., Ratanakorn, P. and Kullavanijaya, B. 2004. Management of the Siamese crocodile in Thailand. In: Crocodiles. The 17th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 141-142. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Thang, N.Q. 1994. The status of Crocodylus rhombifer in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. In Crocodiles. The 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 141-142. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 1992. Crocodiles: An Action Plan for their Conservation. In: H. Messel, F.W. King and J.P. Ross (eds). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Thorbjarnarson, J.B., Phothitay, C. and Hedemark, M. 2004. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Siamese Crocodile in Lao PDR. In: Crocodiles. The 17th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 1-10. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Thorbjarnarson, J., Platt, S.G., Win Ko Ko, Khin Myo Myo, Lay Lay Khaing, Kalyar and Holmstrom, B. 2006. Crocodiles in Myanmar: Species diversity, historic accounts, and current population status and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 10: 67-79.
Thuok, N. and Tana, T. 1994. Country Report on Crocodile Conservation in Cambodia. In: Crocodiles. The 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 3-15. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Timmins, R.J. 2007. An assessment of the biodiversity conservation signiﬁcance of the Mekong Ramsar site, Stung Treng, Cambodia. Mekong Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme, Vientiane.
Truyen, T. 2011. Country report – Vietnam. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the First Regional Species Meeting of the IUCN SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 33-35. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin, Australia.
Webb, G.J.W. and Jenkins, R.W.G. 1991. Management of crocodilians in Indonesia: a review with recommendations. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Webb, G.J.W. and Jenkins, R.W.G. 1991. Management of crocodilians in Thailand: a review with recommendations. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Youngprapakorn, P. 1991. Crocodile chromosomes. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 10: 20.
Youngprapakorn, U., Cronin, E.W. and McNeely, J.A. 1971. Captive breeding of crocodiles in Thailand. In: Crocodiles. The 1st Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group: pp. 98-101. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland.
|Citation:||Bezuijen, M., Simpson, B., Behler, N., Daltry, J. & Tempsiripong, Y. 2012. Crocodylus siamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T5671A3048087.Downloaded on 25 September 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|