|Scientific Name:||Eleutherodactylus coqui|
|Species Authority:||Thomas, 1966|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Studies addressing the taxonomic status of E. coqui (whether it is one nominal species or more than one species) are equivocal (e.g., Bird-Picó 1994, Gonser 1996, Rios-López 1999, and Veló-Anton et al. 2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Hedges, B., Joglar, R., Thomas, R., Powell, R. & Rios-López, N.|
|Reviewer/s:||Angulo, A. & Stuart, S.|
Listed as Least Concern given that, although there have been some declines in montane populations (probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years), perhaps due to a combination of climate change and/or chytridiomycosis, it is an extremely abundant species, it is found in disturbed habitats, and lowland populations appear to be unaffected.
|Range Description:||This species occurs on Puerto Rico, and has been introduced on to Isla Vieques and Isla Culebra, as well as to Dominican Republic, St. Thomas, St John and St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands, and Hawaii and Florida in the United States. Individuals of E. coqui were introduced to New Orleans and Boston, although in New Orleans the species was never established, as introduced individuals were only males (Dundee 1991), and in Boston’s case, individuals appear to be restricted to a greenhouse at the University of Massachussetts’ grounds (Pearson 2006). It appears to have been incidentally transported to Guam, although it is not considered to have established a breeding population there (Christy et al. 2007). These instances are not mapped as part of the species' range. The species has been recorded from sea level up to the highest peak in Puerto Rico at 1,338 m asl.|
Introduced:Dominican Republic; United States (Florida, Hawaiian Is.); Virgin Islands, U.S.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The lowland populations are common and should be considered "Least Concern" but apparently there has been an observed decline in the upland population in the Palo Colorado Forest, suggesting that upland populations should be listed as "Near Threatened" (Burrowes et al. 2004).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in mesic forests. Males call from elevated exposed surfaces such as leaves and tree trunks. It has also been recorded from agricultural land including plantations and arable land, and other disturbed habitats such as towns. Nests are usually found on vegetation, and it develops directly.|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat loss is a major threat to this species in particular clearance of the land for agriculture. The cause of the decline in the Palo Colorado Forest is chytridiomycosis probably linked to climate change. Rats and mongooses have been suggested as potential threats (as invasive predators) to Eleutherodactylus species in Puerto Rico (Hedges 1993), although literature on this subject is equivocal (Hedges 1993; and Thurley and Bell 1994, support the notion that these introduced species comprise threats to amphibian species, while Reagan and Waide 1996, suggest that rats are lesser predators of Eleutherodactylus coqui), and there is currently no consensus regarding the impact that these species may or may not have on amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. Future research efforts directed at investigating the impact of these invasive species on amphibian populations may help to establish their relative contribution to amphibian declines.|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in all of the protected areas found in Puerto Rico. Monitoring of the disease is recommended.|
Beard, K.H. 2007. Diet of the invasive frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, in Hawaii. Copeia: 281-291.
Bird-Picó, F. 1994. Genetic variation in the Neotropical frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. University of Kansas.
Burrowes, P.A., Joglar, R.L. and Green, D.E. 2004. Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. Herpetologica: 141-154.
Burrowes, P.A., Joglar, R.L. and Green, D.E. 2004. Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. Herpetologica 60(2): 141-154.
Christy, M.T., Clark, C.S., Gee II, D.E., Vice, D., Vice, D.S., Warner, M.P., Tyrrell, C.L., Rodda, G.H. and Savidge, J.A. 2007. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam. Pacific Science 61(4): 469–483.
Dundee, H.A. 1991. When is an introduction not an introduction? Herp Review 22(4): 122.
Gonser, R.A. 1996. Phylogeographic variation of the Puerto Rican frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at Albany.
Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: a perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 290-303.
Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: a perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation 2(3): 290-303.
Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R. 1999. West Indian herpetoecology. In: B.I. Crother (ed.), Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 223-226. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R. 2001. Responses by the West Indian herpetofauna to human-influenced resources. Caribbean Journal of Science 37: 41-54.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
Joglar, R.L. 1999. Que Cante el Coquí Ensayos, Cartas y Otros Documentos Sobre la Conservación de la Biodiversidad en Puerto Rico (1987-1999). Proyecto Coquí, Puerto Rico.
Joglar, R.L. and Burrowes, P.A. 1996. Declining amphibian populations in Puerto Rico. In: Powell, R. and Henderson, R.W. (eds), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, pp. 371-380. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.
Joglar, R.L. and Rios, N. 1998. Eleutherodactylus coqui (Puerto Rican Coqui, Coquí Común) in Dominican Republic. Herpetological Review: 107.
Kraus, F. and Campbell, E. 2002. Human-mediated escalation of a formerly eradicable problem: The invasion of Caribbean frogs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biological Invasions: 327-332.
Kraus, F., Campbell, E.W., Allison, A. and Pratt, T. 1999. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii. Herpetological Review: 21-25.
Pearson, K. 2006. The Coqui and UMass Boston. Boston Available at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6799781163378369331.
Reagan, D.P. and Waide, R.B. 1996. The Food Web of a Tropical Rain Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Rios-López, N. 1999. Variation in reproductive biology, physiology, and morphology of Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae) along an altitudinal gradient. University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras Campus.
Rivero, J.A. 1998. Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico / The Amphibians and Reptiles of Puerto Rico. Second edition. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
Stewart, M.M. 1995. Climate driven population fluctuations in rain forest frogs. Journal of Herpetology: 437-446.
Stewart, M.M. and Pough, F.H. 1983. Population density of tropical forest frogs: relation to retreat sites. Science: 570-572.
Thurley, T., and Bell, B.D. 1994. Habitat distribution and predation on a western population of terrestrial Leiopelma (Anura: Leiopelmatidae) in the northern King country, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 21: 431-436.
Velo-Antón, G., Burrowes, P.A., Joglar, R.L., Martínez-Solano, I., Beard, K.H. and Parra-Olea, G. 2007. Phylogenetic study of Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae) reveals deep genetic fragmentation in Puerto Rico and pinpoints origins of Hawaiian populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 716-728.
Woolbright, L.L. 1996. Disturbance influences long-term population patterns in the Puerto Rican frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Biotropica: 493-501.
|Citation:||Hedges, B., Joglar, R., Thomas, R., Powell, R. & Rios-López, N. 2009. Eleutherodactylus coqui. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 December 2013.|
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