Ceratophrys ornata


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Ceratophrys ornata
Species Authority: (Bell, 1843)
Common Name(s):
English Argentina Horned Frog, Bell's Ceratophrys, Ornate Horned Frog
Spanish Escuerzo

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Axel Kwet, Gabriel Skuk, Débora Silvano, Esteban Lavilla, Ismael di Tada, Rafael Lajmanovich
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is in significant decline (but at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because it is subject to intense persecution, making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species can be found in the Pampean region of Argentina (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Entre Ríos, La Pampa, Mendoza and Santa Fe), Uruguay (Rocha and San José), and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 0-500m asl.
Argentina; Brazil; Uruguay
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It has apparently disappeared from at least two sites in Uruguay (Rocha, in Laguna de Castillos, and San Jose, in Delta del Tigre). It is rare in Argentina.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This frog occurs in grasslands on the ground near temporary waterbodies, and also occurs in roadside ditches and in irrigated cropland. The eggs are laid on the bottom of temporary ponds.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is collected for the international pet trade and its eggs are sold internationally for scientific research. No data are available either on official trade or on illegal trade; captive breeding is probably high.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss (due to agricultural development and housing development) is a major threat, as is water and soil pollution due to agriculture, industry, and human settlement. It is sometimes subject to persecution because of unfounded beliefs that it is venomous. It is also collected for the international pet trade and its eggs are sold internationally for scientific research.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in some protected areas.

Bibliography [top]

Braun, P.C. and Braun, C.A.S. 1980. Lista prévia dos anfíbios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia: 121-146.

Cei, J.M. 1980. Amphibians of Argentina. Monitore Zoologico Italiano N.S. Monografia.

Cochran, D.M. 1955. Frogs of southeastern Brazil. United States National Museum Bulletin: 1-423.

di Tada, I.I., Zavattieri, M.V., Bridarolli, M.E., Salas, N.E. and Martino, A.L. 1996. Anfibios anuros de la Provincia de Cordoba. In: di Tada, I.E. and Bucher, E.H. (eds), Biodiversidad de la Provincia de Cordoba. Fauna. Vol. 1, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Argentina.

Gambarotta, J.C., Saralegui, A. and Gonzalez, E.M. 1999. Vertebrados tetrapodos del Refugio de Fauna Laguna de Castillos, Departamento de Rocha. Relavamientos de Biodiversidad: 1-31.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Langone, J.A. 1994. Ranas y sapos del Uruguay (Reconocimiento y aspectos biologicos). Museo Damaso Antonio Larranaga (Divulgacion): 1-123.

Lavilla, E.O. and Cei, J.M. 2001. Amphibians of Argentina. A second update, 1987-2000. Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino (Italia), Torino, Italy.

Lavilla, E.O., Ponssa, M.L., Baldo, D., Basso, N., Bosso, A., Cespedez, J., Chebez, J.C., Faivovich, J., Ferrari, L., Lajmanovich, R., Langone, J.A., Peltzer, P., Ubeda, C., Vaira, M. and Vera Candioti, F. 2000. Categorización de los Anfibios de Argentina. Categorización de los Anfibios y Reptiles de la República Argentina: 11-34.

Lynch, J.D. 1982. Relationships of the frogs of the genus Ceratophrys (Leptodactylidae) and their bearing on hypotheses of Pleistocene forest refugia in South America and punctuated equilibria. Systematic Zoology: 166-179.

Maneyro, R. and Langone, J.A. 2001. Categorizacion de los anfibios del Uruguay. Cuadernos de Herpetología: 107-118.

Salas, N.E., Zavattieri, M.V., di Tada, I.E., Martino, A.L. and Bridolli, M.E. 1998. Bioacoustical and etho-ecological features in amphibian communities of southern Cordoba Province (Argentina). Cuadernos de Herpetología: 37-46.

Citation: Axel Kwet, Gabriel Skuk, Débora Silvano, Esteban Lavilla, Ismael di Tada, Rafael Lajmanovich 2004. Ceratophrys ornata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.
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