|Scientific Name:||Pseudacris regilla|
|Species Authority:||(Baird and Girard, 1852)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Recuero et al. (2006) examined patterns of mtDNA variation (including new samples and additional samples presented by Ripplinger and Wagner 2004) and reviewed available allozyme data for Pseudacris regilla (sensu lato). They concluded that P. regilla should be partitioned into three species, P. regilla, P. sierra, and P. hypochondriaca (the original proposal included different names based on taxonomic errors that were subsequently corrected). The authors did not provide detailed maps or descriptions of the ranges of the three proposed species and did not describe the contact zones between P. sierra and the other two species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. Recuero et al. (2006) proposed that this species be split into three species; all of these would be Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species occurs from southern British Columbia in Canada through the USA to Baja California, Mexico, then east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada. It also occurs on the Channel Islands off southern California (Behler and King 1979). Desert populations in southern California were probably introduced. It is introduced on Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia (Reimchen 1990), Canada. It was recently found on Revillagigedo Island in Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, where it is probably breeding and was possibly introduced (Waters 1992). It occurs from sea level to over 3,000m asl.|
Native:Canada; Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are many occurrences of this highly abundant species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in a wide variety of habitats including grassland, chaparral, woodland, forests and farmland. It is usually found among low vegetation near water. It breeds in marshes, lakes, ponds, ditches, reservoirs and slow-moving streams (Stebbins 1985). It lays eggs on submerged plant stems or on the bottom. It sometimes breeds in weakly brackish water.|
|Major Threat(s):||Introduced mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) prey heavily on larvae and might negatively affect this species' populations (Goodsell and Kats 1999). However, this is not a pervasive threat. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species' range overlaps numerous protected areas throughout its range.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Case, S.M., Haneline, P.G. and Smith, M.F. 1975. Protein variation in several species of Hyla. Systematic Zoology: 281-295.
Cocroft, R.B. 1994. A cladistic analysis of chorus frog phylogeny (Hylidae: Pseudacris). Herpetologica: 420-437.
da Silva, H.R. 1997. Two character states new for hylines and the taxonomy of the genus Pseudacris. Journal of Herpetology: 609-613.
Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Goodsell, J.A. and Kats, L.B. 1999. Effect of introduced mosquitofish on Pacific treefrogs and the role of alternative prey. Conservation Biology: 921-924.
Hedges, S.B. 1986. An electrophoretic analysis of holarctic hylid frog evolution. Systematic Zoology: 1-21.
Highton, R. 1991. Molecular phylogeny of plethodontine salamanders and hylid frogs: statistical analysis of protein comparisons. Molecular Biology and Evolution: 796-818.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Leonard, W.P., Brown, H.A., Jones, L.L.C., McAllister, K.R. and Storm, R.M. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington.
Matthews, K.R., Pope, K.L., Preisler, L.K. and Knapp, R.A. 2001. Effects of nonnative trout on Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla) in the Sierra Nevada. Copeia: 1130-1137.
Munger, J.C., Gerber, M., Madrid, K., Carroll, M.-A., Petersen, W. and Heberger, L. 1998. U.S. National Wetland Inventory classifications as predictors of the occurrence of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla). Conservation Biology: 320-330.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Perrill, S.A. and Daniel, R.E. 1983. Multiple egg clutches in Hyla regilla, H. cinerea and H. gratiosa. Copeia: 513-516.
Recuero, E., I. Martínez-Solano, G. Parra-Olea, and M. García-París. 2006. Phylogeography of Pseudacris regilla (Anura: Hylida) in western North America , with a proposal for a new taxonomic rearrangement [Taxonomic errors in this publication were corrected by Recuero, Martínez-Solano, Parra-Olea, and García-París. 2006. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41:511.]. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 293-304.
Reimchen, T.E. 1990. Introduction and dispersal of the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla, on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist: 288-290.
Ripplinger, J. I., and R. S. Wagner. 2004. Phylogeography of northern populations of the Pacific treefrog, Pseudacris regilla. Northwestern Naturalist 85: 118-125.
Rorabaugh, J. C., J. M. Howland, and R. D. Babb. 2004. Distribution and habitat use of the Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla) on the lower Colorado River and in Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 49: 94-99.
Schaub, D.L. and Larsen Jr, J.H. 1978. The reproductive ecology of the Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla). Herpetologica: 409-416.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Waters, D.L. 1992. Geographic distribution: Pseudacris regilla. Herpetological Review: 24-25.
Weitzel, N.H. and Panik, H.R. 1993. Long-term fluctuations of an isolated population of the Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) in northwestern Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist: 379-384.
Welsh, H.H., Jr., Hodgson, G.R. and Lind, A.J. 2005. Ecogeography of the herpetofauna of a northern Californian watershed: linking species patterns to landscape processes. Ecography: 521-536.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera 2004. Pseudacris regilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 January 2015.|
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