Gastrotheca excubitor 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hemiphractidae

Scientific Name: Gastrotheca excubitor
Species Authority: Duellman and Fritts, 1972
Taxonomic Notes: This genus has recently been moved from the family Hylidae (Faivovich et al. 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Ariadne Angulo, Wilfredo Arizabal, Jesús Córdova-Santa Gadea
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat in the Peruvian Andes.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found along the Amazonian slopes of the Andes, and is recorded from three different areas, namely Machu Picchu, San Luis and San Pedro in the department of Cusco, southern Peru. Records from the department of Cajamarca are thought to be in error and require further verification. It has an altitudinal range of 2,000-3,000m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is very common.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a terrestrial species of primary and secondary montane tropical forest; it exhibits some resilience in the face of habitat distrubance, and may be found in low intensity farmed areas. The eggs hatch on the female's back, and the larvae are also carried on the back.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is extensive habitat loss due to agriculture (tea and coffee), and the development of infrastructure for tourism.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is recorded from both Manú National Park and Machu Pichu.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Unknown  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Duellman, W.E. and Fritts, T.H. 1972. A taxonomic review of the southern Andean marsupial frogs (Hylidae: Gastrotheca). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas: 1-37.

Faivovich, J., Haddad, C.F.B., Garcia, P.C.O., Frost, D.R., Campbell, J.A. and Wheeler, W.C. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294: 1-240.

Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA). 2000. Mapa de areas naturales protegidas del Peru.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Rodríguez, L.O., Cordova, J.H. and Icochea, J. 1993. Lista preliminar de los anfibios del Peru.: 1-22.

Citation: Ariadne Angulo, Wilfredo Arizabal, Jesús Córdova-Santa Gadea. 2004. Gastrotheca excubitor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55333A11294733. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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