Epipedobates tricolor 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Dendrobatidae

Scientific Name: Epipedobates tricolor
Species Authority: (Boulenger, 1899)
Common Name(s):
Spanish Rana Tricolor Ecuatoriana
Taxonomic Notes: This species and Epipedobates anthonyi were recently separated by Schulte (1999). We follow Graham et al. (2004) in restricting the distribution of E. tricolor to central Ecuador.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Luis A. Coloma
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, it is known from fewer than ten locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from seven localities on the Andean slopes of the Bolívar Province in central Ecuador, where it occurs at elevations of approximately 1,000-1,769m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It appears to have been declining in the northern portion of its range in Ecuador, where some populations have disappeared.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in montane forest near streams. Eggs are laid in the leaf-litter, and the males carry the larvae to running and standing water for development. It is not known if this species can adapt to habitat modification.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is unclear as to whether specimens in commercial trade formerly allocated to E. tricolor are actually E. anthonyi. Further studies are needed.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is agrochemical pollution of waterways, and habitat loss due to smallholder farming activities. It is also collected for medicinal use in Ecuador. Some of the declines appear to have taken place in suitable habitat, so chytridiomycosis cannot be ruled out as a possible threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known with certainty if this species occurs in any protected areas, and expanded protection of the remaining montane forest within the range of the species' is recommended. The possible impact of overharvesting for medicinal use, and commercial trade in wild specimens, requires further investigation. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 International : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Boulenger, G.A. 1899. Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. P.O. Simons in the Andes of Ecuador. Annals and Magazine of Natural History: 454-457.

Graham, C.H., Ron, S.R., Santos, J.C., Schneider, C.J. and Moritz, C. 2004. Integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in Dendrobatid frogs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution: 497-503.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Schulte, R. 1999. Pfeilgiftfrosche. Arteneil Peru (species account). INBICO, Wailblingen, Germany.

Silverstone, P.A. 1976. A revision of the poison arrow frogs of the genus Phyllobates Bibron in Sagra (Family Dendrobatidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Bulletin: 1-53.

Citation: Luis A. Coloma. 2004. Epipedobates tricolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55239A11278331. . Downloaded on 24 November 2015.
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