|Scientific Name:||Centrolene heloderma|
|Species Authority:||(Duellman, 1981)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2ac ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Taran Grant, Wilmar Bolívar|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population.
|Range Description:||This species occurs on the western versant of the Cordillera Occidental in Colombia in Cauca, Valle del Cauca and Risaralda Departments, south to the Tandayapa and Saloya Valleys, in Pichincha Province, Ecuador (where it has been recorded from four localities). Its altitudinal range is 1,900-2,400m asl.|
Possibly extinct:Colombia; Ecuador
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It has disappeared from all known localities in Ecuador, the most recent record dating back to March 1979, although they might occur elsewhere in this country. In Colombia, it is very rare, and was last recorded in 1996. Overall, it appears to have undergone a serious decline.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits the upper elevations of cloud forest, surviving only in mature forest. It breeds in streams, with the eggs laid on leaves overhanging the water.|
|Major Threat(s):||The most likely cause of the severe decline of this species is the movement of the cloud layer up the mountain sides as a result of climate change, resulting in reduced humidity within the altitudinal range of the species (probably exacerbated by habitat fragmentation). Additional likely threats include: deforestation for agricultural development (including illegal crops), fire, logging, and human settlement; introduction of alien predatory fish species in streams; and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops. Chytridiomycosis also cannot be ruled out.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species probably has been recorded in several protected areas in Colombia, but is not recorded from any in Ecuador. Surveys are urgently needed to determine whether or not this species still survives, and, if necessary, an ex-situ captive population should be established.|
Duellman, W.E. 1981. Three new species of centrolenid frogs from the Pacific versant of Ecuador and Colombia. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas: 1-9.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Ruiz-Carranza, P.M. and Lynch, J.D. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia I. Propuesta de una nueva clasificación genérica. Lozania (Acta Zoológica colombiana): 1-30.
Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.
|Citation:||Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Taran Grant, Wilmar Bolívar 2004. Centrolene heloderma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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