|Scientific Name:||Nectophrynoides viviparus|
|Species Authority:||(Tornier, 1905)|
Pseudophryne vivipara Tornier, 1905
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Further taxonomic investigations are required on this species as more than one taxon may be represented.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Liedtke , C., Howell, K., Poynton, J. & Loader, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Morris, E.J. & Luedtke, J.|
Listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and degree of tolerance to disturbance.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||In the previous assessment, this species was known only from the Uluguru and Udzungwa Mountains in the east and Mount Rungwe in the south of Tanzania. Its range has been expanded to include Mahenge, the Livingston and Rubeho Mountains. It is a montane species ranging from 1,350-2,800m asl occurring in approximately six threat-defined locations. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 55,263 km2 and a rough estimate of its area of occupancy (AOO) equals 2,399 km2.|
Native:Tanzania, United Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a relatively common species, but its population is suspected to be both severely fragmented and decreasing due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lives in sub-montane and montane forest, and montane grassland, where it is found low in the vegetation and on the ground. It can tolerate some disturbance to its habitat and can survive in banana plantations, but probably not in very open areas. It breeds by internal fertilization, the females retaining the larvae internally in the oviduct until little toadlets are born.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species has been reported as being illegally traded (K. Howell pers. comm. June 2012).|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat to this species is habitat disturbance, especially at lower altitudes, due to agricultural encroachment, wood extraction and expanding human settlements.|
It occurs in several forest reserves, including the Uluguru Nature Reserve. It might occur in the Udzungwa National Park, but has thus far not been recorded. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.
Improved protection of its habitat and management of protected areas is required.
Further information is required on the species' distribution and population status.
Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
Channing, A., Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Akker, S. 2005. A new forest toad from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania (Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides). African Journal of Herpetology 54: 149-157.
Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: J.C. Lovett and S.K. Wasser (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Menegon, M. 2000. Nectophrynoides viviparus diet. Herpetological Review 31: 41.
Perret, J.-L. 1971. Les especes du genre Nectophrynoides d'Afrique (Batraciens Bufonides). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun 6: 99-109.
Perret, J.-L. 1972. Les especes des genres Wolterstorffina et Nectophrynoides d'Afrique. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun 11: 93-119.
Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
Poynton, J.C. 1998. Tanzanian bufonid diversity: preliminary findings. Herpetological Journal 8: 3-6.
Poynton, J.C. 2003. Altitudinal species turnover in southern Tanzania shown by anurans: some zoogeographical considerations. Systematics and Biodiversity 1: 117-126.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Nectophrynoides viviparus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54846A16950142.Downloaded on 17 January 2017.|
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