|Scientific Name:||Nectophrynoides viviparus|
|Species Authority:||(Tornier, 1905)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Simon Loader, John Poynton, Kim Howell|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is probably less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and the quality and extent of its forest habitat in the Eastern Arc Mountains is declining.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in the Uluguru and Udzungwa Mountains and in the Southern Highlands of eastern and southern Tanzania. It is a montane species, ranging from 1,350-2,800m asl.|
Native:Tanzania, United Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is relatively common.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is a terrestrial species living in forest, bamboo, and grasslands at the forest edge. It has been found in maize cultivation, but needs to be close to the forest edge, and probably cannot tolerate complete opening up of its habitat. It breeds by internal fertilization, the females retaining the larvae internally in the oviduct until little toadlets are born.|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat to this species is habitat loss, especially at lower altitudes, due to agricultural encroachment, wood extraction and expanding human settlements.|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in several forest reserves, but has not been found in any well-protected area. It might occur in the Udzungwa National Park, but has thus far not been recorded. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.|
Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
Channing, A., Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Akker, S. 2005. A new forest toad from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania (Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides). African Journal of Herpetology 54: 149-157.
Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: Lovett, J.C. and Wasser, S.K. (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Menegon, M. 2000. Nectophrynoides viviparus diet. Herpetological Review: 41.
Perret, J.-L. 1971. Les especes du genre Nectophrynoides d'Afrique (Batraciens Bufonides). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun: 99-109.
Perret, J.-L. 1972. Les especes des genres Wolterstorffina et Nectophrynoides d'Afrique. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun: 93-119.
Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
Poynton, J.C. 1998. Tanzanian bufonid diversity: preliminary findings. Herpetological Journal: 3-6.
Poynton, J.C. 2003. Altitudinal species turnover in southern Tanzania shown by anurans: some zoogeographical considerations. Systematics and Biodiversity: 117-126.
|Citation:||Simon Loader, John Poynton, Kim Howell 2004. Nectophrynoides viviparus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2015.|
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