|Scientific Name:||Anaxyrus woodhousii|
|Species Authority:||(Girard, 1854)|
Bufo woodhousii Girard, 1854
|Taxonomic Notes:||Anaxyrus fowleri was formerly included in this species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is found throughout most of central and southwestern USA and portions of adjacent northern Mexico. It is absent from high mountains and the West Coast.|
Native:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Abundant and widespread. The population trend varies with location but is probably stable in most areas. See Sullivan and Lamb (1988) for evidence that B. woodhousii is displacing B. microscaphus in central Arizona.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits grasslands, deserts and semi-desert shrublands, river valleys and floodplains, agricultural areas, usually in areas with deep friable soils. It burrows underground or hides under rocks, plants, or other cover when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in the shallow water of marshes, rain pools, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, flooded areas, and other bodies of water lacking a strong current.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not found within any protected areas in Mexico but occurs in several in the USA.|
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Collins, J.T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second Edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8, Kansas.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Dundee, H.A. and Rossman, D.A. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Green, D.M. 1984. Sympatric hybridization and allozyme variation in the toads Bufo americanus and B. fowleri in southern Ontario. Copeia: 18-26.
Hammerson, G.A. 1982. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Denver.
Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.
Malmos, K.B., Sullivan, B.K. and Lamb, T. 2001. Calling behavior and directional hybridization between two toads (Bufo microscaphus X B. woodhousei) in Arizona. Evolution: 626-630.
Sanders, O. 1986. The heritage of Bufo woodhousei Girard in Texas. Baylor Univ., Occas. Pap. Strecker Mus. No. 1.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Sullivan, B.K. and Lamb, T. 1988. Hybridization between the toads Bufo microscaphus and Bufo woodhousii in Arizona: variation in release calls and allozymes. Herpetologica: 325-333.
Sullivan, B.K., Malmos, K.B. and Given, M.F. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia: 274-280.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera 2004. Anaxyrus woodhousii. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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