Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Anaxyrus woodhousii
Species Authority: (Girard, 1854)
Common Name(s):
English Woodhouse's Toad
Bufo woodhousii Girard, 1854
Taxonomic Notes: Anaxyrus fowleri was formerly included in this species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found throughout most of central and southwestern USA and portions of adjacent northern Mexico. It is absent from high mountains and the West Coast.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Abundant and widespread. The population trend varies with location but is probably stable in most areas. See Sullivan and Lamb (1988) for evidence that B. woodhousii is displacing B. microscaphus in central Arizona.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits grasslands, deserts and semi-desert shrublands, river valleys and floodplains, agricultural areas, usually in areas with deep friable soils. It burrows underground or hides under rocks, plants, or other cover when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in the shallow water of marshes, rain pools, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, flooded areas, and other bodies of water lacking a strong current.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is not found within any protected areas in Mexico but occurs in several in the USA.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Suitable  
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Collins, J.T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second Edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8, Kansas.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Dundee, H.A. and Rossman, D.A. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

Green, D.M. 1984. Sympatric hybridization and allozyme variation in the toads Bufo americanus and B. fowleri in southern Ontario. Copeia: 18-26.

Hammerson, G.A. 1982. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Denver.

Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.

Malmos, K.B., Sullivan, B.K. and Lamb, T. 2001. Calling behavior and directional hybridization between two toads (Bufo microscaphus X B. woodhousei) in Arizona. Evolution: 626-630.

Sanders, O. 1986. The heritage of Bufo woodhousei Girard in Texas. Baylor Univ., Occas. Pap. Strecker Mus. No. 1.

Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Sullivan, B.K. and Lamb, T. 1988. Hybridization between the toads Bufo microscaphus and Bufo woodhousii in Arizona: variation in release calls and allozymes. Herpetologica: 325-333.

Sullivan, B.K., Malmos, K.B. and Given, M.F. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia: 274-280.

Citation: Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera. 2004. Anaxyrus woodhousii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54798A11195037. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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