|Scientific Name:||Cheirogaleus medius É. Geoffroy, 1812|
Cheirogaleus adipicaudatus Grandidier, 1868
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Groeneveld, L.F., Weisrock, D.W., Rasoloarison, R.M., Yoder, A.D., and Kappeler, P.M. 2009. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 30.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Based on the general metapopulation lineage concept and multiple sources of data, Groeneveld et al. (2009) clarified the exclusivity of three of the seven recognized dwarf lemur species: C. major, C.medius and C. crossleyi. These three species were found to be genealogically exclusive in both mtDNA and nDNA loci, and furthermore, they exhibit morphological distinctiveness. Molecular and morphometric data support the hypothesis that C. adipicaudatus and C. ravus are synonymous with C. medius and C. major, respectively.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.|
Given the impact of habitat loss within the range of this species, it is likely that C. medius is currently in decline. Despite this threat, the species is still thought to be relatively common within its range. Based on these premises, C. medius is listed as Least Concern. Further information on population status, habitat loss, and threats may warrant listing this species in a more threatened category in the future.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the island of Madagascar. Groves (2000, 2001), in revising the genus, limited its range to the dry forests of western Madagascar. However, subsequent field studies and genetic analyses have extended the species' range all the way to the southern tip of Madagascar and into the evergreen humid forest of Saint Luce, 40 km northeast of Tolagnaro in southeastern Madagascar (Hapke et al. 2005). Furthermore, C. adipicaudatus has been invalidated as a species, thus extending the range of this species. In the southeast, C. medius also occurs in the littoral forests of Petriky and Mandena, and in humid forest remnants in the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo Mountains (west of Fort-Dauphin). Groeneveld and co-workers further confirmed, in 2009 and 2010, that this species occurs in the Tolagnaro region in the southeast, and also in the region of the Bay of Pasandava (north of the Ampasindava Peninsula) in the north west. In addition, it is confirmed for the Sahamalaza Peninsula, extends as far north west as Ankarana and in at least two sites in the north east, Bekaraoka and Sambava, and it may be the species present in the Daraina area of the northeast, but this remains to be confirmed. This species' widespread status may change if the five terminal clades within this species found by Groeneveld et al. (2009) are found to be new species. Ranges from sea level to 800 m. |
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Cheirogaleus medius is an apparently widespread and abundant species. It occurs at densities estimated to range between 40-400 individuals/km² (see Mittermeier et al. 2008 and references therein). In central Menabe, densities were recorded at 140 individuals/km2. C. medius co-occurs with Microcebus berthae; they are found in higher densities when together. C. medius is able to live in fragments of 200-300 ha.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits dry deciduous forests, gallery and evergreen humid as well as transitional sub-humid forest. Fruits, flowers, seeds and the tender parts of plants are dietary staples, with invertebrates being eaten in small amounts and small vertebrates taken on occasion. Individual home ranges approach 1-2 ha. Small family groups consist of the reproductively active pair and their offspring from one or two breeding seasons. Daylight hours are spent in tree holes during the day, with up to five individuals occupying a single shelter. The breeding season occurs from September to November, leading to a gestation period of between 61 to 64 day. One to four (usually two) offspring are born in December or January. Full sexual maturity is reached during the second year of life (Mittermeier et al. 2008). Captive longevity record is 18 years.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
Threats include habitat loss, primarily due to slash-and-burn agriculture, charcoal extraction, and bushfires; in addition to hunting.
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. Its presence is reported in at least eight national parks (Andohahela, Ankarafantsika, Baie de Baly, Shamalaza-Iles Radama, Tsimanampetsota, Tsingy de Namorka and Zombitse- Vohibasia; it may also occur in Kirindy Mitea), four special reserves (Andranomena, Bemarivo, Beza- Mahafaly and Maningoza) as well as, Menabe- Antimena Protect Area ans Saint- Luce Private Reserve (O'Connor et al. 1968, Harcourt and Thornback 1990, Feistner and Schmid 1999, Mittermeier et al. 2008, and R. Lewis pers. comm.). Taxonomic work and genetic analyses are urgently required to elucidate more clearly the taxonomic and geographic limits of the species.
There are 50 individuals in zoos around Europe and the USA recorded as C. medius (ISIS 2009).
Feistner, A.T.C. and Schmid, J. 1999. Lemurs of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d’Andohahela, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology 94: 269-284.
Groeneveld, L.F., Weisrock, D.W., Rasoloarison, R.M., Yoder, A.D., and Kappeler, P.M. 2009. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 30.
Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2000. The genus Cheirogaleus: Unrecognized biodiversity in dwarf lemurs. International Journal of Primatology 21(6): 943-962.
Hapke, A., Fietz, J., Nash, S. D., Rakotondravony, D., Rakotosamimanana, B., Ramanamanjato, J.-B., Randria, G. F. N. and Zischler, H. 2005. Biogeography of dwarf lemurs: genetic evidence for unexpected patterns in south-eastern Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 26: 873-901.
Harcourt, C. and Thornback, J. 1990. Lemurs of Madagascar and the Comoros. The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland.
ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.
O’Connor, S., Pidgeon, M. and Randria, Z. 1986. Conservation program for the Andohahela Reserve, Madagascar. Primate Conservation: 48-52.
|Citation:||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Cheirogaleus medius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T54778866A16111536.Downloaded on 20 June 2018.|
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