|Scientific Name:||Rhinella proboscidea|
|Species Authority:||(Spix, 1824)|
Bufo proboscideus Spix, 1824
Rhinella proboscideus Spix, 1824
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hoogmoed (1990) noted that this species was referred to erroneously as Rhinella dapsilis by Zimmerman and Bogart (1988), who removed it from the synonymy of Rhinella margaritifera (referred to as Bufo typhonius). The diagnostic differences between this form and geographically proximate members of the Rhinella margaritifera group are not well documented.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Claude Gascon, Marinus Hoogmoed|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs along the main trunk of the Amazon River from Manaus to eastern Ecuador, including Colombia and Peru. Although Frost (2002) records this species as spanning from the "Amazon river region from Ecuador to Manaus, Brazil", there have been no specific localities provided for eastern Ecuador.|
Native:Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is very common.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lives in old growth and old second growth Tropical rainforest (See discussion by Hoogmoed, 1986). It reproduces explosively in small temporary pools.|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat destruction and degradation are threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in protected areas.|
Hoogmoed, M.S. 1986. Biosystematic studies of the "Bufo typhonius" group. A preliminary progress report. Studies in Herpetology: 147-150.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Spix, J.B. 1824. Animalia nova sive Species novae Testudinum et Ranarum quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII–MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae Regis. Bavariae Regis, München.
Zimmerman, B.L. and Rodrigues, M.T. 1990. Frogs, snakes, and lizards of INPA-WWF Reserves near Manaus, Brasil. In: Gentry, A.H. (ed.), Four Neotropical rainforest, pp. 426-454. Yale University Press, New Haven.
|Citation:||Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Claude Gascon, Marinus Hoogmoed 2004. Rhinella proboscidea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2013.|
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