Barbarophryne brongersmai 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Barbarophryne brongersmai
Species Authority: (Hoogmoed, 1972)
Common Name(s):
English Brongersma's Toad
French Crapaud de Brongersma
Bufo brongersmai Hoogmoed, 1972
Pseudepidalea brongersmai (Hoogmoed, 1972)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Assessor(s): Alfredo Salvador, David Donaire-Barroso, El Hassan El Mouden, Tahar Slimani, Philippe Geniez, José Mateo
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of serious habitat degradation through most of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is restricted to western, southern and eastern Morocco, ranging into northern Western Sahara and north-western Algeria, from sea level to 1,600m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Morocco; Western Sahara
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It can be abundant in suitable habitat, but is in decline as its habitats are being lost.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is present in semi-arid, hilly areas with Argania spinosa, Euphorbia, and graminaceous vegetation. It may be found in ploughed fields (Schleich, Kästle and Kabisch 1996), and hides beneath stones during the day. The temporary ponds that it breeds in are mostly located in rocky areas, and it has been observed in artificial waterbodies (such as dammed temporary rivers).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is threatened through much of its range by increased aridity, pollution and drainage of its breeding habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in Parc National de Souss-Massa but is not protected by national legislation. It can be bred successfully in captivity.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.3. Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Bogaerts, S. 2001. Breeding Brongersma's Toad Bufo brongersmai. Podarcis: 81-88.

Bons, J. and Geniez, P. 1996. Amphibiens et reptiles du Maroc (Sahara Occidental compris) Atlas Biogéographique. Asociación Herpetológica Española, Barcelona, Spain.

Gallix, T. 2002. Premieres données sur la biologie de Bufo brongersmai Hoogmoed 1972 Endemique du Maroc, Suivi éco-éthologique d’une population en sympatrie avec Bufo viridis Laurenti 1768 pendant l’année 1999 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) (Oued Oudoudou; S.O.Maroc). Mémoire, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Montpellier, France.

Geniez, P., Mateo, J.A. and Bons, J. 2000. A checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Western Sahara (Amphibia, Reptilia). Herpetozoa: 149-163.

Geniez, P., Mateo, J.A., Geniez, M. and Pether, J. 2004. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Western Sahara. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Grillitsch, B., Grillitsch, H. and Splechtna, H. 1989. The tadpole of Bufo brongersmai Hoogmoed 1972. Amphibia-Reptilia: 215-229.

Guillaume, C.P. and Bons, J. 1982. Nouvelles observations herpétologiques au Maroc. Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France: 47-53.

Hoogmoed, M.S. 1972. On a new species of toad from Southern Morocco. Zoologische Mededelingen: 49-67.

IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.

Mateo, J.A., Plegezuelos, J.M., Fahd, S., Geniez, P. and Martínez-Medina, F.J. 2003. Los Anfibios, los Reptiles y el Estrecho de Gibralter. Un ensayo sobre la Herpetofauna de Ceuta y su entorno. Instituto de Estudios Ceuties, Ceuta.

Salvador, A. 1996. Amphibians of northwest Africa. Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service: 1-43.

Schleich, H.H., Kästle, W. and Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz scientific books, Koenigstein.

Schouten, J.R. and Thevenot, M. 1988. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Khnifiss La Youne region. In: Dakki, M. and De Ligny (eds), The Khnifiss lagoon and its surrounding environment (province of La youne, Morocc), pp. 100-114. Trav. Inst. Mém. Hors serie, Rabat.

Citation: Alfredo Salvador, David Donaire-Barroso, El Hassan El Mouden, Tahar Slimani, Philippe Geniez, José Mateo. 2006. Barbarophryne brongersmai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2006: e.T54594A11158438. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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