Actinella armitageana 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Hygromiidae

Scientific Name: Actinella armitageana (Lowe, 1852)
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-09-30
Assessor(s): Seddon, M.B.
Reviewer(s): Cameron, R., Groh, K., Teixeira, D., Abreu, C., Cuttelod, A. & Neubert, E.
Contributor(s): Abreu, C. & Killeen, I.
Although it could meet the criteria for Endangered, this species was originally considered to be borderline between Vulnerable and Near Threatened, based on the scale of the threats in this protected area. The main part of the range lies close to the area of  a major fire that occurred in August 2010, and hence this species is listed as Vulnerable (VU) D2, based on  the close proximity of the sites containing the sub-populations, the small area of suitable habitat and the vulnerability of the habitat to change from changes in grazing patterns or possibility of habitat degradation with reduced rainfall and increased risk of fires. It was originally listed as Vulnerable in 1994, and reaffirmed as Vulnerable D2 in 2000 (Seddon, pers. comm., 2009).  If parts of the range have been lost as part of the fire in August 2010, then a higher threat category should be considered, but survey work is required to confirm the current distribution along the ridge.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Actinella armitageana is endemic to the Madeiran Archipelago, where it is found on the island of Madeira. It is only found on the summit ridges around Pico Areiro and Pico Ruivo where it is uncommon (Seddon 2008, p.75, 174, Map 101).
Countries occurrence:
Portugal (Madeira)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:20
Number of Locations:5
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population trend is unknown, but this species is always found to be rare and localised in surveys between 1981 and 2000 (Seddon, pers. comm., 2009 , based on data from Robert Cameron and Laurence Cook, National Museum of Wales surveys and Brian Coles)
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in grass tussocks around small crags and amongst scree on the high parts of the summit ridges.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is found in high elevation grasslands with limited habitats close of crags and screes, where the major threats are changes in grazing regimes and potential disturbance from recreational activities such as path construction, litter, grass fires.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is mainly found in protected area. Further survey work is required to confirm the current distribution along the ridge.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):90
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2017).

Seddon, M.B. 2008. An illustrated compendium of the landsnails and slugs of the Madeiran archipelago. Studies in Biodiversity and Systematics of Terrestrial Organisms from the National Museum of Wales. BIOTIR Reports 2. National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.

Citation: Seddon, M.B. 2011. Actinella armitageana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T501A13056250. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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