|Scientific Name:||Chelonia mydas|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Testudo mydas Linnaeus, 1758
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Seminoff, J.A. (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Crouse, D. & Pilcher, N. (Marine Turtle Red List Authority)|
Analysis of historic and recent published accounts indicate extensive subpopulation declines in all major ocean basins over the last three generations as a result of overexploitation of eggs and adult females at nesting beaches, juveniles and adults in foraging areas, and, to a lesser extent, incidental mortality relating to marine fisheries and degradation of marine and nesting habitats. Analyses of subpopulation changes at 32 Index Sites distributed globally (Figure 1, Table 1; see link to additional information below) show a 48% to 67% decline in the number of mature females nesting annually over the last 3–generations.
Assessment Procedure: In accord with the IUCN criterion that Red List Assessments focus on the number of mature individuals (IUCN 2001a), this assessment measures changes in the annual number of nesting females. Because reliable data are not available for all subpopulations, the present report focuses on 32 Index Sites (Figure 1, Table 1; see link to additional information below). These Index Sites include all of the known major nesting areas as well as many of the lesser nesting areas for which quantitative data are available. Despite considerable overlap at some foraging areas, each is presumed to be genetically distinct (Bowen et al. 1992, Bowen 1995) except for the Turtle Islands of Malaysia (Sabah) and Philippines (Moritz et al. 1991). These two Index Sites are, however, treated independently because of the different management practices exercised by the two governments and the resultant differences in subpopulation trends. Selection of the 32 Index Sites was based on two primary assumptions: (1) they represent the overall regional subpopulation trends and (2) the number of individuals among Index Sites in each region is proportional to the actual population size in that region. Any regional inconsistencies in this proportion may result in a biased global population estimate.
It should be noted that a major caveat of using the number of nesting females to assess population trends is that this data type provides information for the proportion of the adult females that nest in any given year, not the total adult female population. However, when monitored over many years, this index can be reliable for assessing long-term population trends (Meylan 1982, Limpus 1996). In the case of green turtles, which display high inter-annual variability in magnitude of nesting (Limpus and Nichols 1987, Broderick et al. 2001a), using short-term or single-season data sets could misrepresent the actual mean number of nesters over a longer timeframe. To alleviate this potential source of error, we used multiple-year data sets whenever available. However, when single-season datasets represented the only quantitative information for a given time period, these data were used as long as they were in accord with qualitative information from other references.
Because data on annual number of nesting females are not always available, we also used data on number of nests per season, annual hatchling production, annual egg production and annual egg harvest. When these proxies were used, we converted units to number of nesting females based on a constant figure of 100 eggs/nest and three nests/season/female, unless otherwise noted. These conversions were based on the assumptions that (1) the mean number of eggs/nest and nests/female/season differ insignificantly through time, and (2) efforts to monitor nesting female activity and egg production are consistent through time. When using egg harvest data, we also assumed that harvest effort was consistent during all years for which data are available and 100% of the eggs were harvested in any given year. We believe these assumptions are accurate, but their absolute validation is very difficult. Qualitative information does, however, suggest that they are reasonable assumptions. For example, in the case of historic egg harvest, the same group of people usually harvested the eggs at a particular nesting beach each year, and they typically took every egg they could find (e.g., Parsons 1962, Pelzer 1972).
In the present assessment, population abundance estimates are based on raw data, linear extrapolation functions, and exponential extrapolation functions. In most subpopulations, more than one trajectory was exhibited over the 3–generation interval; changes in subpopulation size are thus often based on a combination of raw data and extrapolations. If no change is believed to have occurred outside the time interval for which published abundance data are available, the raw data were used to determine the change in population size. However, when it is believed that change in subpopulation abundance occurred outside the interval for which raw data were available, extrapolations we performed to determine the overall change. Linear extrapolations were used when it was believed that the same amount of change occurred each year, irrespective of total subpopulation size. Exponential extrapolations were used when it was believed that change was proportional to the subpopulation size. In cases where there is a lack of information on the specific rate of change, both linear and exponential extrapolations were used to derive population estimates. However, if extrapolations resulted in obviously false estimates, their results were discarded (see Table 5; see link to additional information below).
Generation Length. Generation length is based on the age to maturity plus one half the reproductive longevity (Pianka 1974). Although there appears to be considerable variation in generation length among sea turtle species, it is apparent that all are relatively slow maturing and long-lived (Chaloupka and Musick 1997). Green turtles exhibit particularly slow growth rates, and age to maturity for the species appears to be the longest of any sea turtle (Hirth 1997). As a result, this assessment uses the most appropriate age-at-maturity estimates for each index site. At Index Sites for which there are local age-to-maturity data, those data are used to establish generation length. When data are lacking, as they are for a majority of subpopulations, information from the closest subpopulation for which data are available are used to generate age-at-maturity estimates (Table 2; see link to additional information below).
Estimates of reproductive longevity range from 17 y to 23 y (Carr et al. 1978, Fitzsimmons et al. 1995). Data from the apparently pristine Green Turtle stock at Heron Island in Australia’s southern Great Barrier Reef show a mean reproductive life of 19 y (Chaloupka et al. 2004). Because Heron Island is the only undisturbed stock for which reproductive longevity data are available (M. Chaloupka, pers. comm.), this datum is used for all Index Sites (Table 3; follow link to additional information below). Thus, based on the range of ages-at-sexual-maturity (26 yrs to 40 yrs) and reproductive longevity from the undisturbed Australian stock (19 yr), the generation lengths used for this assessment range from 35.5 yrs to 49.5 yrs (Table 3; see link to additional information below).
Uncertainties in assessment process: As with any assessment based on historic data or small datasets, there is a great deal of uncertainty relating to the final results of this report. The sources of uncertainty are rooted in both the procedure itself as well as in the stochastic nature green of turtle biology. Both sources of uncertainty are ultimately related to a lack of information, which can be a common issue when dealing with an animal as long-lived as a Green Turtle.
First and foremost is the uncertainty related to the assumptions invoked for this assessment. For example, if, contrary to our assumption, efforts to monitor nesting female activity and egg production were not consistent through time, then our results may be biased. Similarly, our estimates may be inaccurate if harvest effort or the relative amount of eggs harvested was not consistent through time. In addition, the use of extrapolations may have resulted in erroneous estimates of population change. The potential for this increased when extrapolations were made over long time intervals, when they were based on short-term data sets, or if the start and/or end points of extrapolations were erroneous.
Uncertainty may also be tied to Green Turtle biology. In particular, the substantial variability in the proportion of a population that nests in any given year may result in inaccurate comparisons between past and present data sets. For example, if the proportion of a subpopulation’s adult female cohort nesting each year oscillates over decadal or longer time frames, then it is conceivable that our estimates of annual change in nesting numbers do not correspond to actual changes in the entire subpopulation. Moreover, if our conversion values for eggs/nest and nests/female/season are not accurate for the specific subpopulation being addressed, inaccuracies may result. Lastly, with respect to the migratory behaviour of green turtles, it is expected that each of the Index Sites included in this assessment represent a distinct subpopulation. Indeed, current genetic data support this claim, however, in the absence of complete data for all rookeries, it is possible that turtles moving back and forth between nesting areas in close proximity could have gone undetected. It is thus conceivable that a female could be counted twice. This would, of course, only be a problem when subpopulation size is based on an actual count of individual turtles visiting the beach. Although unlikely, it amounts to an additional source of uncertainty in this assessment.
Population trends. Based on the actual and extrapolated changes in subpopulation size at the 32 Index Sites, it is apparent that the mean annual number of nesting females has declined by 48% to 67% over the last three generations (Table 5; see link to additional information below). In addition, it is apparent that the degree of population change is not consistent among all Index Sites or among all regions (Tables 5 and 6; see link to additional information below). Because many of the threats that have led to these declines are not reversible and have not yet ceased, it is evident that green turtles face a measurable risk of extinction. Based on this assessment, it is apparent that green turtles qualify for Endangered status under Criteria A2bd.
The key supporting documentation is presented in the tables (see link to additional information below), and the full assessment is also available from the Marine Turtle Specialist Group web site.
|Range Description:||The Green Turtle has a circumglobal distribution, occurring throughout tropical and, to a lesser extent, subtropical waters (Atlantic Ocean – eastern central, northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest, western central; Indian Ocean – eastern, western; Mediterranean Sea; Pacific Ocean – eastern central, northwest, southwest, western central). Green turtles are highly migratory and they undertake complex movements and migrations through geographically disparate habitats. Nesting occurs in more than 80 countries worldwide (Hirth 1997). Their movements within the marine environment are less understood but it is believed that green turtles inhabit coastal waters of over 140 countries (Groombridge and Luxmoore 1989).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Australia (Ashmore-Cartier Is., Coral Sea Is. Territory, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Galápagos); Egypt; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko); Eritrea; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Grenada; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; India (Andaman Is., Gujarat, Laccadive Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Papua, Sulawesi, Sumatera); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Jamaica; Japan (Honshu, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto); Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Madagascar; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Maldives; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mayotte; Mexico (Baja California, Campeche, Michoacán, Quintana Roo, Revillagigedo Is., Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán); Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; New Zealand (Kermadec Is., North Is., South Is.); Nicaragua; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Turkey; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States (Florida, Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Midway Is., US Line Is.); Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Aves I., Venezuelan Antilles); Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen
Regionally extinct:Cayman Islands; Mauritius (Rodrigues - Native)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Like most sea turtles, green turtles are highly migratory and use a wide range of broadly separated localities and habitats during their lifetimes (for review see Hirth 1997). Upon leaving the nesting beach, it has been hypothesized that hatchlings begin an oceanic phase (Carr 1987), perhaps floating passively in major current systems (gyres) that serve as open-ocean developmental grounds (Carr and Meylan 1980, Witham 1991). After a number of years in the oceanic zone, these turtles recruit to neritic developmental areas rich in seagrass and/or marine algae where they forage and grow until maturity (Musick and Limpus 1997). Upon attaining sexual maturity green turtles commence breeding migrations between foraging grounds and nesting areas that are undertaken every few years (Hirth 1997). Migrations are carried out by both males and females and may traverse oceanic zones, often spanning thousands of kilometers (Carr 1986, Mortimer and Portier 1989). During non-breeding periods adults reside at coastal neritic feeding areas that sometimes coincide with juvenile developmental habitats (e.g., Limpus et al. 1994, Seminoff et al. 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||Green turtles, like other sea turtle species, are particularly susceptible to population declines because of their vulnerability to anthropogenic impacts during all life-stages: from eggs to adults. Perhaps the most detrimental human threats to green turtles are the intentional harvests of eggs and adults from nesting beaches and juveniles and adults from foraging grounds. Unfortunately, harvest remains legal in several countries despite substantial subpopulation declines (e.g., Humphrey and Salm 1996, Fleming 2001, Fretey 2001). In addition, a number of incidental threats impact green turtles around the world. These threats affect both terrestrial and marine environments, and include bycatch in marine fisheries, habitat degradation at nesting beaches and feeding areas, and disease. Mortality associated with entanglement in marine fisheries is the primary incidental threat; the responsible fishing techniques include drift netting, shrimp trawling, dynamite fishing, and long-lining. Degradation of both nesting beach habitat and marine habitats also play a role in the decline of many Green Turtle stocks. Nesting habitat degradation results from the construction of buildings, beach armoring and re-nourishment, and/or sand extraction (Lutcavage et al. 1997). These factors may directly, through loss of beach habitat, or indirectly, through changing thermal profiles and increasing erosion, serve to decrease the quantity and quality of nesting area available to females, and may evoke a change in the natural behaviors of adults and hatchlings (Ackerman 1997). The presence of lights on or adjacent to nesting beaches alters the behavior of nesting adults (Witherington 1992) and is often fatal to emerging hatchlings as they are attracted to light sources and drawn away from the water (Witherington and Bjorndal 1990). Habitat degradation in the marine environment results from increased effluent and contamination from coastal development, construction of marinas, increased boat traffic, and harvest of nearshore marine algae resources. Combined, these impacts diminish the health of coastal marine ecosystems and may, in turn, adversely affect green turtles. For example, degradation of marine habitats has been implicated in the increasing prevalence of the tumor-causing Fibropapilloma disease (George 1997).|
Green turtles have been afforded legislative protection under a number of treaties and laws (e.g., Navid 1982, Humphrey and Salm 1996, Fleming 2001, Fretey 2001). Among the more globally relevant designations are those of Endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN; Baillie and Groombridge 1996, Hilton-Taylor 2000); Annex II of the SPAW Protocol to the Cartagena Convention (a protocol concerning specially protected areas and wildlife); Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Speciesof Wild Fauna and Flora); and Appendices I and II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). A partial list of the International Instruments that benefit green turtles includes the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA), the Memorandum of Understanding on ASEAN Sea Turtle Conservation and Protection, the Memorandum of Agreement on the Turtle Islands Heritage Protected Area (TIHPA), and the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Conservation Measures for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa.
As a result of these designations and agreements, many of the intentional impacts directed at sea turtles have been lessened: harvest of eggs and adults has been slowed at several nesting areas through nesting beach conservation efforts and an increasing number of community-based initiatives are in place to slow the take of turtles in foraging areas. In regard to incidental take, the implementation of Turtle Excluder Devices has proved to be beneficial in some areas, primarily in the United States and South and Central America (National Research Council 1990). However, despite these advances, human impacts continue throughout the world. The lack of effective monitoring in pelagic and near-shore fisheries operations still allows substantial direct and indirect mortality, and the uncontrolled development of coastal and marine habitats threatens to destroy the supporting ecosystems of long-lived green turtles.
Ackerman, R.A. 1997. The nest environment and the embryonic development of sea turtles. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (eds), The Biology of Sea Turtles, pp. 83-106. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Agardy, M.T. 1992. Conserving sea turtles while building an ecotourism industry in Guinea Bissau, West Africa. In: M. Salmon and J. Wyneken (compilers) Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, pp. 3-6. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-302.
Al-Merghani, M., Miller, J.D., Pilcher, N.J. and Al-Mansi, A. 2000. The green and hawksbill turtles in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Synopsis of nesting studies 1986-1997. Fauna of Arabia 18: 369-384.
Alvarado-Díaz, J., Delgado-Trejo, C. and Suazo-Ortuño, I. 2001. Evaluation of black turtle project in Michoacán, México. Marine Turtle Newsletter 92: 4-7.
Arauz, R.M., Vargas, R., Naranjo, I. and Gamboa, C. 1998. Analysis of incidental capture and mortality of sea turtles in the shrimp fleet of Pacific Costa Rica. In: S.P. Epperly and J. Braun (compilers), Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Sea Turtle Symposium, pp. 1-5. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-415.
Arrinal 1997. Nesting green turtles at Meru Betiri National Park, Suka Made, East Java. (c/o C. Limpus).
Asrar, F.F. 1999. Decline of marine turtle nesting populations in Pakistan. Marine Turtle Newsletter 83: 13-14.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Balazs, G.H. 1980. Synopsis of biological data on the green turtle in the Hawaiian Islands. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS, NOAA-SWFC-7. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Banks, E. 1937. The breeding of the edible turtle, Chelonia mydas. Sarawak Museum Journal 4: 523-532.
Basson, P., Burchard, J., Hardy, J. and Price, A. 1977. Biotopes of the Western Arabian Gulf. Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. 284 pp.
Bhaskar, S. 1984. The status and distribution of sea turtles in India. Proceeding of the Workshop on Sea Turtle Conservation: CMFRI publication. No: 18.
Bjorndal, K.A. and Bolten, A.B. (eds). 2000. Proceedings of a workshop on assessing abundance and trends for in-water sea turtle populations. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-445. 83 pp.
Bjorndal, K.A., Wetherall, J.A., Bolten, A.B., and Mortimer, J.A. 1999. Twenty-six years of nesting data from Tortuguero, Costa Rica: an encouraging trend. Conservation Biology 13: 126-134.
Bonnet, B., Le Gall, J.Y. and Lebrun, G. 1985. Tortues marines de la Reunion et des Isles Eparces. Universite de al Reunion, Institut Français de Recherches pour l’exploitation de la mer et Associaon pour le developpement de l’aquaculture, 24 pp.
Bowen, B.W. 1995. Molecular genetic studies of marine turtles. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 585-587, revised edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Bowen, B.W., Meylan, A.B., Ross, J.P., Limpus, C.J., Balazs, G.H. and Avise, J.C. 1992. Global population structure and natural history of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in terms of matriarchal phylogeny. Evolution 46: 865-881.
Broderick, A.C., Glen, F., Godley, B.J. and Hays, G.C. 2002. Estimating the number of green and loggerhead turtles nesting annually in the Mediterranean. Oryx 36: 1-9.
Broderick, A.C., Godley, B.J. and Hays, G.C. 2001a. Trophic status drives inter-annual variability in nesting numbers of marine turtles. Proceedings of the Royal Society 268: 1481-1487.
Broderick, A.C., Godley, B.J. and Hays, G.C. 2001b. Monitoring and conservation of marine turtles of Ascension Island: a sustainable resource. Interim Report to Foreign and Commonwealth Office Environment Fund for the Overseas Territories. 13 pp.
Burnett-Herkes, J., Frick, H.G., Barwick, D.C. and Chitty, N. 1984. Juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Bermuda: movements, growth, and maturity. In I.P. Bacon, F. Berry, K. Bjorndal, H. Hirth, L. Ogren, and M. Weber (eds) Proceedings of the Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium, pp. 250-251. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmoshperic Sciences Printing, Miami, Florida.
Bustard, H.R. 1974. Barrier Reef sea turtle populations. Proceedings of the Second International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 227-234.
Caldwell, D.K. 1963. The sea turtle fishery of Baja California, México. California Fish and Game 49: 140-151.
Carr, A. 1986. The Sea Turtle: So Excellent a Fishe. University of Texas Press, Austin. 280 pp.
Carr, A. 1987. New perspectives on the pelagic stage of sea turtle development. Conservation Biology 1: 103.
Carr, A. and Meylan, A.B. 1980. Evidence of passive migration of green turtle hatchlings in Sargassum. Copeia 1980: 366-368.
Carr, A., Carr, M.H. and Meylan, A.B. 1978. The ecology and migrations of sea turtles, 7. The West Caribbean green turtle colony. Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 162: 1-46.
Carr, A., Meylan, A.B., Mortimer, J.M., Bjorndal, K.A. and Carr, T. 1982. Surveys of sea turtle populations and habitats in the Western Atlantic. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA Techical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-91. 91 pp.
Catry, P., Barbosa, C., Indjai, B., Almeida, A., Godley, B.J. and Vié, J.C. 2002. First census of the green turtle at Poilao, Bijagos Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau: the most important nesting colony on the Atlantic coast of Africa. Oryx 36: 400-403.
Chaloupka, M. 2001. Historical trends, seasonality and spatial synchrony in green sea turtle egg production. Biological Conservation 101: 263-279.
Chaloupka, M.Y. and Limpus, C.J. 2001. Trends in the abundance of sea turtles resident in southern Great Barrier Reef waters. Biological Conservation 102: 235-249.
Chaloupka, M.Y. and Musick, J.A. 1997. Age, growth, and population dynamics. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles, pp. 233-273. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Chaloupka, M.Y., Limpus, C.J. and Miller, J.D. 2004. Sea turtle growth dynamics in a spatially disjunct metapopulation. Coral Reefs 23: 3
Charuchinda, M. and Monanunsap, S. 1998. Monitoring survey on sea turtle nesting in the Inner Gulf of Thailand, 1994-1994. Thai. Marine Fisheries Research Bulletin 6: 17-25.
Cliffton, K., Cornejo, D.O. and Felger, R.S. 1982. Sea turtles of the Pacific coast of México. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 199-209. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Craig, J.A. 1926. A new fishery in México. California Fish and Game 12: 166-169.
de Silva, G.S. 1969. Turtle conservation in Sabah. Sabah. Society Journal 5(1): 6-26.
de Silva, G.S. 1982a. The status of sea turtle populations in East Malaysia and the China Sea. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 327-337. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
de Silva, G.S. 1982b. Protected areas and turtle eggs in Sabah, East Malaysia. In: J.A. McNeely and K.R. Miller (eds) National Parks, Conservation, and Development,: the role of protected areas in sustaining society pp. 154-159. Proceedings of the World Congress on National Parks held on 11-22 October 1982 in Bali, Indonesia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Dobbs, K. 2002. Marine turtle conservation in the Great Barrier Reef, World Heritage Area, Queensland, Australia. In I. Kinan (ed.) Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop, pp. 77-82. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Dodd Jr., C.K. 1982. Nesting of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas (L.), in Florida: historic review and present trends. Brimleyana 7: 39-54.
Domantay, J.S. 1953. The turtle fisheries of the turtle islands. Bulletin of the Fisheries Society of the Philippines 3,4: 3-27.
Ehrhardt, N.M. and Witham, R. 1992. Analysis of growth of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) in the western Central Atlantic. Bulletin of Marine Science 50: 275-281.
Eisentraut, M. 1964. Meeresschildkröten an der Küste von Fernando Poo. Natur und Museum 94: 471-475.
Encalada, S.E., Lahanas, P.N., Bjorndal, K.A., Bolten, A.B., Miyamoto, M.M. and Bowen, B.W. 1996. Phylogeography and population structure of the Atlantic and Mediterranean green turtle Chelonia mydas: a mitochondrial DNA control region sequence assessment. Molecular Ecology 5: 473-483.
Fitzsimmons, N.N., Tucker, A.D. and Limpus, C.J. 1995. Long-term breeding histories of male green turtles and fidelity to a breeding ground. Marine Turtle Newsletter 68: 2-4.
Fleming, E.H. 2001. Swimming Against the Tide: Recent surveys of Exploitation, Trade, and Management of Marine Turtles in the Northern Caribbean. Traffic North America, Washington D.C. 161 pp.
Frazer, N.B. and Ehrhart, L.M. 1985. Preliminary growth models for green, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead, Caretta caretta, turtles in the wild. Copeia 1985: 73-79.
Frazer, N.B. and Ladner, R.C. 1986. A growth curve for green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in the U. S. Virgin Islands, 1913-14. Copeia 1986: 798-802.
Frazier, J. 1985. Marine Turtles in the Comoro Archipelago. North-Holland Publishing Company. Amsterdam. 177 pp.
Fretey, J. 2001. Biology and conservation of marine turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa. CMS Technical Series Publication No. 6. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany, 429 pp.
Geldiay, R. 1987. Marine turtles in Turkey. Council of Europe, Convention of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Secretariat Memorandum, Appendix IV, pp. 10-11. Strasbourg.
George, R.H. 1997. Health problems and diseases of sea turtles. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles, pp. 363-409. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Godley, B.J., Broderick, A.C. and Hays, G.C. 2001. Nesting of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Ascension Island, South Atlantic. Biological Conservation 97: 151-158.
Groombridge, B. 1982. The IUCN Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book, Part 1: Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynocehapalia. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Groombridge, B. and Luxmoore, R. 1989. The Green Turtle and Hawksbill (Reptilia: Cheloniidae): World Status, Exploitation and Trade. Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Lausanne, Switzerland, 601 pp.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Harrison, T. 1962. Notes on the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) 11. West Borneo numbers, the downward trend. Sarawak Museum Journal 10(19-20): 514-623.
Hendrickson, J.R. and Alfred, E.R. 1961. Nesting populations of sea turtles on the east coast of Malaya. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum Singapore 26: 190-196.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hirth, H.F. 1968. The green turtle resource of South Arabia, and the status of the green turtle in the Seychelles Islands. Report to the governments of Southern Yemen and the Seychelles Islands on the green turtle. FAO/UNDP, Rome. 50 pp.
Hirth, H.F. 1997. Synopsis of the biological data on the green turtle, Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus 1758). United States Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 97-1. 120 pp.
Hirth, H.F. and Hollingworth, S.L. 1973. Report to the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen. Report FAO/UNDP. TA 3178, Rome. 51 pp.
Horikoshi, K., Suganuma, H., Tachikawa, H., Sato, F. and Yamaguchi, M. 1994. Decline of Ogasawara green turtle nesting population in Japan. In: K.A. Bjorndal, A.B. Bolten, D.A. Johnson, and P.J. Eliazar (compilers) Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, pp. 235-236. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-351.
Hornell, J. 1927. The Turtle Fisheries of the Seychelles Islands. H.M. Stationary Office, London. 55 pp.
Hughes, G.R. 1970. The status of sea turtles in South East Africa, 2. Madagascar and the Mascarenes (1) Europa Island. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban, South Africa. Mimeographed. 47 pp.
Hughes, G.R. 1974. The sea turtles of south-east Africa. I. Status, morphology, and distributions. South African Association for Marine Biological Research, Oceanographic Research Institute 35: 1-144.
Hughes, G.R. 1982. Conservation of sea turtles in the Southern Africa Region. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 397-404. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Humphrey, S.L. and Salm, R.V. (eds). 1996. Status of Sea Turtle Conservation in the Western Indian Ocean. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 165. IUCN/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 162 pp.
Hurtado, M. 1984. Registros de anidación de la tortuga negra, Chelonia mydas, en las Islas Galápagos. Boletín Científico y Técnico 4: 77-106.
Hurtado, M. 2001. Panorámica Regional sobre el Estado de la Conservación de las Tortugas Marinas en el Pacífico Sudeste (Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Panamá, Perú). Procede de los talleres nacionales organizados por la Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur con el apoyo del NMFS/ WWF/ UNEP.
Ibrahim, K. 1993. The status of marine turtle conservation in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the First ASEAN symposium-workshop on marine turtle conservation, pp. 87-103. Manila.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2001b. Guidelines for assessing taxa with widely distributed or multiple populations against Criterion A. IUCN Red List Standards and Petitions Sub-committee, June 2001.
IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Species Survival Commision. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Kar, C.S. and Bhaskar, S. 1982. Status of sea turtles in the Eastern Indian Ocean. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 365-372. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Karl, S.A., Bowen, B.W. and Avise, J.C. 1992. Global population structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas): RFLP analyses of anonymous nuclear loci. Genetics 131: 163-173.
Kasparek, M., Godley, B.J. and Broderick, A.C. 2001. Nesting of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Mediterranean: a review of status and conservation needs. Zoology in the Middle East 24: 45-74.
Lebeau, A. 1985. Essai d’ evaluation des pontes de la tortue verte Chelonia mydas (Linne) sur l’ Atoll de Scilly (Iiessous-le-vent, Polynésie francaise) au cours des saisons 1982-1983 et 1983-1984. In: International Association for Biological Oceanography, Committee on Coral Reefs (eds) Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, held on 27 May - 1 June, 1985 in Tahiti. Volume 5, pp. 487-493. Antenne Museum-EPHE, Moorea, French Polynesia.
Lebeau, A., Biais, G., Durand, J.L. and Gober, B. 1983. La tortue verte Chelonia mydas (Linne) des Isles de Tromelin et d’Europa (Ocean Indien): peuplement et reproduction. Inst. Scient. Techn. Pêches Marit., L Port Réunion. 39 pp.
Legall, J.Y., Bosc, P., Chateau, D. and Taquet, M. 1986. Estimation du nombre de tortues vertes femelles adultes Chelonia mydas par saison de ponte á Tromelin et Europa (Océan Indien) (1973-1985). Oceanographique Tropicale 21: 3-22.
Limoges, B. and Robillard, M J. 1991. Sea turtles in the Bijagos Ardhipelago, Guinea-Bissau: nesting ecology, utilization by man and conservation. Report mimeogr. CECI and IUCN, 42 pp.
Limpus, C.J. 1994. Current declines in Southeast Asian turtle populations. In: B.A. Schroeder and B.E. Witherington (compilers) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, pp. 89-91. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-341.
Limpus, C.J. 1996. Myths, reality, and limitations of green turtle census data. In: J.A. Keinath, D.A. Barnard, J.A. Musick and B.A. Bell (compilers) Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, pp. 170-173. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-387.
Limpus, C.J. and Nichols, N. 1987. The southern oscillation regulates the annual numbers of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) breeding around northern Australia. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 15: 157-161.
Limpus, C.J. and Walter, D.G. 1980. The growth of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) under natural conditions. Herpetologica 36: 162-165.
Limpus, C.J., Couper, P.J. and Read, M.A. 1994. The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in Queensland: population structure in a warm temperate feeding area. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 35: 139-154.
Limpus, C J., Miller, J.D., Limpus, D.J. and Hamann, M. 2002. The Raine Island green turtle rookery: Y2K update. In: A. Mosier, A. Foley, B. Brost (eds) Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, pp. 132-134. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-477.
Lutcavage, M.E., Plotkin, P., Witherington, B. and Lutz, P.L. 1997. Human impacts on sea turtle survival. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles, pp. 107-136. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
MacGillivray, W. 1910. Along the Great Barrier Reef. Emu 10: 216-223.
Marine Turtle Specialist Group. For more information, see the Specialist Group website
Márquez, R. 1985a. National Report: Mexico, Caribbean Region. In: P. Bacon, F. Berry, K.A. Bjorndal, H.F. Hirth, L. Ogren and M. Weber (eds) Proceedings of the Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium. Vol. 3. University of Miami Press, Florida.
Márquez, R. 1985b. National Report: Mexico, Gulf Region. In: P. Bacon, F. Berry, K.A. Bjorndal, H.F. Hirth, L. Ogren and M. Weber (eds) Proceedings of the Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium. Vol. 3. University of Miami Press Florida.
Márquez, R. 1990. FAO Species Catalogue: Sea Turtles of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. Vol. 11.
Márquez, R. and Doi, T. 1973. Ensayo teórico sobre el análisis de la población de tortuga prieta, Chelonia mydas carrinegra (Caldwell), en aguas del Golfo de California, México. Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 73: 1-22.
Maxwell, F.D. 1911. Reports on inland and sea fisheries in the Thongwa, Myaungmya, and Bassein districts and the turtle banks of the Irrawaddy division. Rangoon. Government Printing Office 57 pp. As cited in Groombridge, B. and Luxmoore, R. 1989. The green turtle and hawksbill (Reptilia: Cheloniidae): world status, exploitation and trade. Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Mendonca, M.T. 1981. Comparative growth rates of wild immature Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta in Florida. Journal of Herpetology 15: 447-451.
Meylan, A.B. 1982. Estimation of population size in sea turtles. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 135-138. Revised Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.
Meylan, A.B., Bowen, and B.W. Avise, J.C. 1990. A genetic test of the natal homing versus social facilitation models for green turtle migration. Science 248: 724-728.
Meylan, A.M., Schroeder, B. and Mosier, A. 1994. Marine turtle nesting activity in the state of Florida, 1979-1992. In: K.A. Bjorndal, A.B. Bolten, D.A. Johnson, and P J. Eliazar (compilers) Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, p. 83. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-351.
Moreira, L., Baptistotti, C., Scalfone, J., Thomé, J.C. and de Almeida, A.P.L.S. 1995. Occurrence of Chelonia mydas on the Island of Trindade, Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter 70: 2.
Moritz, C., Broderick, D., Dethmers, K., FitzSimmons, N. and Limpus, C. 1991. Migration and genetics of Indo-Pacific marine turtles. Progress Report to UNEP/CMS, May 1991.
Mortimer, J.A. 1984. Marine turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles: Status and Management. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 84pp.
Mortimer, J.A. 1985. Recovery of green turtles on Aldabra. Oryx 19: 146-150.
Mortimer, J.A. 1990. Recommendations for the management of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) population nesting at the Turtle Islands of Sarawak. WWF Report, Project 3868. 25 pp.
Mortimer, J.A. and Carr, A. 1987. Reproduction and migration of the Ascension Island green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Copeia 1987: 103-113.
Mortimer, J.A. and Portier, K.M. 1989. Reproductive homing and internesting behaviour of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) at Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Copeia 1989: 962.
Mortimer, J.A., Collie, J. and Mbindo, C. 1996. The status of sea turtle conservation in the republic of Seychelles. In: S.L. Humphrey and R.V. Salm (eds) Status of Sea Turtle Conservation in the Western Indian Ocean, pp. 103-115. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 165. IUCN/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 162 pp.
Musick, J.A. and Limpus, C.J. 1997. Habitat utilization and migration in juvenile sea turtles. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles, pp. 137-164. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
National Research Council. 1990. Decline of the Sea Turtles: Causes and Prevention. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 259 pp.
Navid, D. 1982. Conservation and management of sea turtles. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 523-536. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Ogren, L.H. 1989. Status report of the green turtle. In: L. Ogren, F. Berry, K.A. Bjorndal, H. Kumpf, R. Mast, G. Medina, H. Reichart, and R. Witham (eds) Proceedings of the Second Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium, pp. 89-94. NOAA Technical Memorandum MMFS-SEFC-226.
Parsons, J.J. 1962. The Green Turtle and Man. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 126 pp.
Pelzer, K.J. 1972. The turtle industry in Southeast Asia. Erdkund, Band XXVI: 9-16.
Philip, M. 2002. Marine turtle conservation in Papua New Guinea. In I. Kinan (ed.) Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop, p.134-137. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Pianka, E.R. 1974. Evolutionary Ecology. Harper and Row, New York. 356 pp.
Pinchon. 1967. In: P.C.H. Pritchard and T. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. Society for the Study of Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford, Ohio.
Pritchard, P.C.H. 1997. Evolution, phylogeny, and current status. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles, pp. 1-28. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Pritchard, P.C.H. and Trebbau, T. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. Society for the Study of Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford, Ohio.
Rene, F. and Roos, D. 1996. The status of sea turtle conservation in French Territories of the Indian Ocean: Isles Eparces. In: S.L. Humphrey and R.V. Salm (eds) Status of Sea Turtle Conservation in the Western Indian Ocean, pp. 151-156. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 165. IUCN/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 162 pp.
Ross, J.P. and Barwani, M.A. 1982. Review of sea turtles in the Arabian area 3. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 372-38. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Saad, M.A. 1999. Hadramaut coast importance in conservation of endangered green turtle. Marine Sciences Resources Research Center, Aden. Unpublished Report. 8 pp.
Schulz, J.P. 1982. Status of sea turtle populations nesting in Suriname with notes on sea turtles nesting in Guyana and French Guyana. In: K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 435-438. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Schulz, J.P. 1984. Turtle conservation strategy in Indonesia. IUCN/WWF Report.
Schulz, J.P. 1987. Status of and trade in Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Indonesia. Consultancy report prepared for IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre.
Sella, I. 1982. Sea turtles in the Eastern Mediterranean and Northern Red Sea. In K.A. Bjorndal (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, pp. 417-423. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Seminoff, J.A., Jones, T.T., Resendiz, A., Nichols, W.J. and Chaloupka, M.Y. 2003. Monitoring green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at a coastal foraging area in Baja California, Mexico: multiple indices describe population status. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83: 1355-1362.
Suwelo, I. and Kuntjaro, S. 1969. Penju laut, productivitas dan pembinaannya di Indonesia. Rimba Indonesia 14: 18-49.
Thorbjarnarson, J.B., Platt, S.G. and Khaing, S.T. 2000. Sea Turtles in Myanmar: Past and Present. Marine Turtle Newsletter 88: 10-11.
Tomas, J., Castroviejo, J. and Raga, J.A. 1999. Sea turtles in the south of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). Marine Turtle Newsletter 84: 4-6.
Trono, R.B. 1991. Philippine marine turtle conservation program. Marine Turtle Newsletter 53:5-7.
Weijerman, M., van Tienen, L., Schouten, A.D. and Hoekert, W.E.J. 1998. Sea turtles of Galibi, Suriname. In: R. Byles and Y. Fernandez (compilers) Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, pp.142-144. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-412.
Wetherall, J.A., Balazs, G.H. and Yong, M.Y.Y. 1998. Statistical methods for green turtle nesting surveys in the Hawaiian Islands. In: S.P. Epperly and J. Braun (Compilers) Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Sea Turtle Symposium, pp. 278-280. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-415.
Witham, R. 1991. On the ecology of young sea turtles. Florida Science 54: 179.
Witherington, B.E. 1992. Behavioral responses of nesting sea turtles to artificial lighting. Herpetologica 48: 31-39.
Witherington, B.E. and Bjorndal, K A. 1990. Influences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta. Biological Conservation 53: 139-149.
Witzell, W.N. 1994a. The origin, evolution, and demise of the US sea turtle fisheries. Marine Fisheries Review 56: 8-23.
Witzell, W.N. 1994b. The U.S. commercial sea turtle landings. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-350.
Zug, G.R. and Glor, R.E. 1999. Estimates of age and growth in a population of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Indian River lagoon system, Florida: a skeletochronological analysis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 1497-1506
Zug, G.R., Balazs, G.H., Wetherall, J.A., Parker, D.M. and Murakawa, S.K.K. 2002. Age and growth of Hawaiian green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): an analysis based on skeletochronology. Fishery Bulletin 100: 117-127.
|Citation:||Seminoff, J.A. (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S.) 2004. Chelonia mydas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2015.|