Aculeola nigra 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Squaliformes Etmopteridae

Scientific Name: Aculeola nigra de Buen, 1959
Common Name(s):
English Hooktooth Dogfish
Spanish Tollo Negro, Tollo Negro De Cachos

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Acuña, E. & Romero, M.
Reviewer(s): Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)
A poorly known deepwater (110 to 735 m, but most commonly 200 to 500 m) etmopterid shark endemic to a limited area of the Southeast Pacific off Peru and Chile. Grows to a maximum of 60 cm total length (TL), with an average litter size of 10, but its biology is still relatively unknown. Aculeola nigra is reported to be relatively common within its limited range, but is potentially vulnerable to deepwater fishing methods. It is known to be taken as bycatch in Chilean deepwater crustacean trawl fisheries, where it was the most important chondrichthyan bycatch species by weight in the deep sea shrimp fishery. There is no indication of bycatch levels off Peru. Without detailed data on catch levels and trends, and pending further work on life history, the species cannot be assessed beyond Data Deficient at present.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Southeastern Pacific Ocean: endemic to Chile (25°05'24"S to 34°15'47"S; 35°26'S, 73°01'W) and Perú (González 2001, Acuña and Villarroel 2002, Meléndez and Meneses, 1989).
Countries occurrence:
Chile; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southeast
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Reported as relatively common within its limited range (Compagno in prep. a).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Benthic and epibenthic on the continental shelf and upper slope on soft bottoms. Compagno (in prep. a) reports this species from depths of 110 to 735 m, but more commonly 200 to 500 m. Ovoviviparous, number of young average 10 (Acuña et al. 2003).

Feeding habits: crustaceans and small fishes, deep-sea shrimp Euphausia mucronata, Heterocarpus reedi and the myctophid Diogenichthys laternatus (Acuña et al. 2003).

Known life history paramenters: Size at maturity: 52 to 54 cm total length (TL) (female); 42 to 46 cm TL (male). Maximum size: 60 cm TLSize at birth : 14 cm TL. Average annual fecundity or litter size: 10

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Chile, bycatch in the deep sea crustacean trawl fishery for the Red Squat Lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon), the Yellow Squat Lobster (Cervimunida johni) and especially the Deep-sea Shrimp (Heterocarpus reedi) off Northern and Central Chile (from 25°05'24"S to 34°15'47"S and 259-498 m depth (González 2001, Acuña and Villarroel 2002). In this fishery it was the most important chondrichthyan species by weight, comprising about 5% of the bycatch (Acuña and Villarroel 2002).

This species may be of conservation concern due to its narrow geographical range and potential vulnerability to deepwater fishing methods given its bathymetric range and the global expansion of deepwater fishing (Compagno in prep. a).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None in place. Monitoring of catches is a priority.

Classifications [top]

10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Acuña, E. and Villaroel, J.C. 2002. Bycatch of sharks and rays in the deep sea crustacean fishery off the Chilean coast. Shark News 14: 16-18.

Acuña, E., Moraga, J. and Uribe, E. 1989. La zona de Coquimbo: Un sistema nerítico de surgencia de alta productividad. Memorias del Simposio Internacional de los recursos Vivos y las pesquerias en el pacífico Sudeste. Viña del Mar, del 9–3 de Mayo, 1988. Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur (CPPS). Revista Pacífico Sur (Número especial): 145–157.

Acuña, E., Villarroel, J.C., Catalán, R. and Herrera, P. 2003. Reproduction and Feeding Habits of Two Deep-Sea Sharks from Central-Northern Chile: the etmopterid Aculeola nigra De Buen, 1959 and the scylliorinid Bythalaelurus canescens (Günther, 1878). Conservation and Management of Deepsea Chondrichthyan Fishes. University of Otago, Portobello Marine Lab., South Island, New Zealand.

Chirichigno, N. and Cornejo, M. 2001. Catalogo Comentado de los peces marinos del Perú. Publicación Especial. Instituto del Mar del Perú.

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol. 4(1).

Compagno, L.J.V. In prep. a. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the shark species known to date. Volume 1. (Hexanchiformes, Squaliformes, Squatiniformes and Pristiophoriformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1, Vol.1. FAO, Rome.

González, J.L. 2001. Fauna íctica concurrente en la pesquería del camarón nailon, Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, entre la II y VIII Regiones (25º01' S y 36º04' S). Tesis para optar al Título de Biólogo Marino, Universidad Católica del Norte ? Sede Coquimbo.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at:

Meléndez, R. and Meneses, D. 1989. Tiburones del Talud continental, recolectados entre Arica (18°19'S) e Isla Mocha (38°30'S), Chile. Investigaciones Marinas, Valparaíso 17:3-73.

Citation: Acuña, E. & Romero, M. 2004. Aculeola nigra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T44653A10932474. . Downloaded on 26 September 2018.
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