|Scientific Name:||Euphorbia tirucalli L.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Rajeriarison, C., Labat, J.N., Lowry, P. & Randrianjohany, E. (Madagascar Plants RLA)|
The species is present in all the tropical parts of the world and is LC in Madagascar, where is has a very large extent of occurrence (992,459 km²) and area of occupancy (192,483 km²). There are some threats, but these do not yet trigger a threatened status.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is present in all the tropical parts of the world and is common throughout its range. The modern distribution of this species appears to have become confused by introductions and subsequent naturalization (it has a long history of utilization be people), so it is hard to know which countries are part of the original range.|
Native:Angola; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Madagascar; Mozambique; Rwanda; South Africa; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Zambia
Introduced:Ghana; India; Philippines; Viet Nam
Present - origin uncertain:Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sao Tomé and Principe; Somalia; South Sudan; Sudan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Usually in dry and moist thicket and savanna-type vegetation. This species is used to feed cattle and is widely used as a hedge plant. The latex is used sometimes as a fish poison, and at one time was exploited, although not very successfully, in the production of rubber. The latex apparently has too high a resin content.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is used to feed cattle and is widely used as a hedge plant. The latex is used sometimes as a fish poison and at one time was exploited, although not very successfully, in the production of rubber, however, the latex apparently has too high a resin content. Other threats faced are habitat degradation and clearing by fire for charcoal harvesting.|
|Conservation Actions:||Occurs in a large number of protected areas. Listed under CITES Appendix II.|
|Amended reason:||Replaced Old Threat Scheme code OLD 1 Habitat Loss/Degradation (human induced) with new Threat Scheme code 5.2.1. Biological resource use -> Gathering terrestrial plants -> Intentional use (species is the target). Also updated the threats description section to include it's use as a cattle feed and hedge plant and the exploitation of the plants latex as a fish poison and it's use in production of rubber.|
Cremers, G. 1984. Les euphorbes coralliformes de Madagascar. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 54(1-2): 23-64.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 23 November 2004).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Leach, L.C. 1973. Euphorbia tirucalli: its typification, synonymy and relationships with notes on "Almeidina" and "Cassoneira". Kirkia 9(1): 69-89.
Rauh, W. 1995. Succulent and Xerophytic plants of Madagascar. Vol I. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley.
Rauh, W. 1998. Succulent and Xerophytic plants of Madagascar. Vol II. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley.
|Citation:||Haevermans, T. 2017. Euphorbia tirucalli. (amended version published in 2004) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T44452A117034216.Downloaded on 21 November 2017.|
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