|Scientific Name:||Cyanea superba|
|Species Authority:||(Cham.) A.Gray|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Maunder, M. (Plant Conservation Committee) & Hilton-Taylor, C. (Red List Programme Office)|
Cyanea superba was endemic to the island of O'ahu, Hawaii. It was known from the northern Waianae Mountains and the southern Koolau Mountains. Only the Waianae subspecies superba was known to be extant. More than 60 plants in two subpopulations were known in the 1970s. The subspecies (and species) then declined down to only one subpopulation containing about five plants. But those too have now finally gone. The major threats to the species and its habitats were alien plants, feral pigs, slugs and fire.
|Range Description:||Cyanea superba was endemic to the island of O'ahu, Hawaii. It was known from the northern Waianae Mountains and the southern Koolau Mountains. The subspecies regina was historically present in the southern Koolau Mountains, but has not been collected since 1932. After its collection in 1870, there were no further documented sightings of Cyanea superba ssp. superba until its rediscovery in the Waianae Mountains in 1971.|
Regionally extinct:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Grew in the understorey of lowland forest (535–700 m).|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threats to the species and its habitats included invasive alien plants, predation by feral pigs, and rats and slugs. Other major threats included wildfires generated by activities in the nearby military firing range. The restricted range of the species also made it very vulnerable to small local disturbances, and hence the last few individuals were easily destroyed.|
|Conservation Actions:||Protective measures and planting were being carried out at Pahole as part of a Recovery Plan. The taxon is listed under the US Endangered Species Act. Plants are still extant in botanic gardens.|
IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.
NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: October 20, 2003).
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Region. 1997. Draft recovery plan for Oahu plants. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.
|Citation:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. 2003. Cyanea superba. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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