|Scientific Name:||Microtus pinetorum|
|Species Authority:||(Le Conte, 1830)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Van der Meulen (1978) regarded subspecies nemoralis and parvulus as species distinct from pinetorum, as have some other authors, whereas Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) regarded all as inseparable. Musser and Carleton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005) indicated that further study is warranted and included them as subspecies as is also done here.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern, although sparsely distributed in natural habitats, it is abundant where associated with orchards and agricultural lands, very widespread, and there are no major threats
|Range Description:||This species occurs in extreme southern Ontario, Canada and throughout the eastern United States with the exception of peninsular Florida and the coastal plains of the southeastern states. A disjunct relict population occurs on the Edwards Plateau in Texas.|
Native:Canada (Ontario, Québec); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Woodland voles tend to be sparsely distributed in natural habitats, densities usually are highest in orchards during fall. The average population density is up to 2.4 per hectare (Miller and Getz 1969). Recorded densities range up to 15 per hectare, although they likely reach higher numbers in orchards. There is a rapid turnover of individuals in a population.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It lives in a wide variety of habitats, but in many areas prefers upland wooded areas with a thick layer of loose soil and humus. It spends most of its time underground in shallow burrow systems. Young are born in nests built beneath logs, below surface litter, or underground. Woodland voles breed mid-February to mid-November, probably year-round. In Oklahoma: apparently all year, with the peak October-May; 1-4 litters per year; litter size is 1-5 (average 2.6) (Caire et al. 1989).
Home range is estimated at about 0.1 hectares. These voles are not territorial, they appear to occur only in loose social groups. Diet includes roots, bulbs, seeds, fruits, and other vegetable matter. Active throughout the day, year-round. Sometimes regarded as a pest; can do serious damage to nurseries and orchards. May damage apple trees by removing bark from roots, especially in winter.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||Its range includes several protected areas.|
Caire, W., Tyler, J. D., Glass, B. P. and Mares, M. A. 1989. Mammals of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.
Miller, D. H. and Getz, L. L. 1968. Life-history notes on Microtis pinetorum central Connecticut. Journal of Mammalogy 50: 777-784.
Musser, G. G. and Carleton, M. D. 1993. Family Muridae. In: D. E. Wilson and D. A. Reeder (eds), Mammal species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic reference, pp. 501-736. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Musser, G. G. and Carleton, M. D. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. In: D. E. Wilson and D. A. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: a geographic and taxonomic reference, pp. 894-1531. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Smolen, M. J. 1981. Microtus pinetorum. Mammalian Species 147: 1-7.
Van der Meulen, A. J. 1978. Microtus and Pitimys (Arvicolidae) from Cumberland Cave, Maryland, with a comparison of some New and Old World species. Annals of Carnegie Museum 47: 101-145.
Whitaker Jr., J. O. and Hamilton Jr., W. J. 1998. Mammals of the Eastern United States. Comstock Publishing, Ithica, NY, USA.
Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Microtus pinetorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2014.|
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