|Scientific Name:||Thomomys talpoides|
|Species Authority:||(Richardson, 1828)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species previously included T. idahoensis and T. clusius as subspecies. Considerable chromosomal differentiation in different parts of the range suggests that more than one biological species is currently included under the name T. talpoides (Thaeler 1985; Patton, in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is very widespread, common, there are no major threats, and it occurs in several protected areas.
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed across central plains and western mountain regions in Canada and the United States, from southern British Columbia to central Alberta and southwestern Manitoba, south to South Dakota and northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, northern Nevada, and northeastern California (Patton, in Wilson and Reeder, 1993).|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan); United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread and common (NatureServe). Estimated densities of up to 91.6/hectare have been recorded (Verts and Carraway, 1999).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Northern pocket gophers prefer deep soils along streams and in meadows and cultivated fields, but they are also found in rocky soils and clay. They occupy a wide variety of habitats ranging from sagebrush steppe, mountain meadows and tundra, to agricultural fields, grasslands, and suburban gardens and lawns (MacMahon, in Wilson and Ruff, 1999). They are primarily fossorial. Young are born in a grass or leaf-lined nests in a natal chamber within the underground burrow system. Females are monoestrous. Mating usually occurs from March to mid-June, depending on weather and latitude. Gestation lasts about 19-20 days. Litter size is four to seven. Young disperse from the natal burrow at about two months of age (Jones et al., 1983).
They are primarily solitary. Home range may occupy 150-200sq yards. Pocket gophers are ecologically important as prey items and in influencing soils, microtopography, habitat heterogeneity, diversity of plant species, and primary productivity (Huntly and Inouye, 1988). They are active throughout the year. They do not hibernate but may be inactive in winter and midsummer for brief periods. Most burrowing activity occurs in spring and fall when soil is loose. Circadian but peaks of activity at dawn and dusk.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not of conservation concern, and its range includes many protected areas.|
Hafner, D. J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland Jr., G. L. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Huntly, N. and Inouye, R. 1988. Pocket gophers in ecosystems: patterns and mechanisms. BioScience 38: 386-793.
Jones Jr., J. K., Armstrong, D. M., Hoffmann, R. S. and Jones, C. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Patton, J. L. 2005. Family Geomyidae. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 859-871. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Thaeler Jr., C. S. 1985. Chromosomal variation in the Thomomys talpoides complex. Acta Zoologica Fennica 170: 15-18.
Verts, B. J. and Caraway, L. N. 1999. Thomomys talpoides. Mammalian Species 618: 1-11.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Thomomys talpoides. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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