|Scientific Name:||Pinus pinea|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Luscombe, D & Thomas, P.|
The widespread occurrence of this species, partly due to past plantings in the Mediterranean, some of which cannot be verified as to indigenity with certainty, ensures it is not threatened with extinction globally.
Recorded from Mediterranean Europe and the Near East (doubtfully native in many areas of the eastern Mediterranean such as Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus and Greece, but impossible to confirm because introductions would be ancient).
Native:France (Corsica); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sicilia); Portugal; Spain (Baleares)
Present - origin uncertain:Albania; Cyprus; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Lebanon; Turkey
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is thought to be stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is primarily a pine of coastal areas in the Mediterranean, at elevations from sea level to 600 m, on coastal dunes and flats as well as on lower slopes of mountains and in the hills. Many present-day stands are the result of historic plantings, some going back to Roman times, and if managed well, these can have a natural understorey of maquis scrub or mixture with smaller broad-leaved trees. Mature trees have a thick, fire resistant bark and the massive cones take three years to mature and are serotinous or semi-serotinous. Seeds are nearly wingless and dispersed by birds (also eaten by rodents) or may scatter after fire burned off the undergrowth and its heat assisted in opening the cones. Pinus pinea is usually an emergent tree above shrubs (maquis) or in low, open forests; it can also occur with Pinus halepensis and in Quercus ilex maquis-woodland|
|Use and Trade:||Although depending on stand density the Stone Pine may develop a tall, straight bole, most commonly its branches spread out and the trunk remains short. The quality of the wood for sawn timber is poor, being coarse and resinous and seldom straight for any substantial length. It is locally used to make furniture. The true economic value of this pine has since ancient times mostly resided in the edible seeds. These are harvested while still inside the closed cones, which are pulled down with hooked poles; the cones open when heated. For this purpose lower tree crowns are favoured, which is accomplished by keeping the canopy open. Seeds are a delicacy in themselves, but are also used in recipies ranging from pasta dishes to pastries. Millions of kilogrammes of seeds or 'pine kernels' are harvested in the Mediterranean countries each year. Empty pine cones are good, hot burning fuel (bakeries), but can also be sold as ornamental objects to florists. The resin is tapped and used for medicinal treatments, wax for violin bows, varnishes, and waterproofing. A green dye is made from the needles. The species is also much valued as an ornamental tree in gardens and parks around the Mediterranean and in other parts of Europe with mild winters. In South Africa it has become naturalized and is an invasive and noxious species in the fynbos biome of the Cape|
|Major Threat(s):||A large dam project under construction is posed to eradicate a subpopulation in NE Turkey (D. Luscombe, pers. comm.. May 2012). Other localized threats include urban, residential and tourist related developments.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is present in many protected areas, within and without its (putative) natural range.|
Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008) In Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK. Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/.
Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Vendramin, G.G., Fady, B., Gonzalez-Martinez, S.C., Hu, F.S., Scotti, I., Sebastiana, F., Soto, A. and Petit, R.J. 2008. Genetically depauperate but widespread: the case of an emblematic Mediterranean pine. Evolution 62-3: 680-688.
Vidacović, M. 1991. Conifers; Morphology and Variation. Grafićki Zavod Hrvatske, Zagreb.
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus pinea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 April 2015.|
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