Zamia integrifolia 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Zamia integrifolia L.f.
Common Name(s):
English bay-rush, comfort root, Florida arrowroot
Zamia floridana A. DC.
Zamia media Jacq.
Zamia silvicola Small
Zamia tenuis Willd.
Zamia umbrosa Small

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Stevenson, D.W.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Bösenberg, J.D.
The species is abundant across its range but has declined substantially in parts of Florida over the past 90 years (estimated at 20%) and has therefore been assessed as Near Threatened (almost qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion A2).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from the extreme southeastern Georgia state of the United States of America, southward through peninsular Florida (including the Florida Keys) and sporadically in the Bahamas where it occurs on Andros, Grand Bahama, Great Abaco, Long, and New Providence Islands. It has been collected in western Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and south-central Puerto Rico where one small population persists.
Countries occurrence:
Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico (main island)); United States (Florida, Georgia)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:10-15
Upper elevation limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It has been estimated that the population size of Z. integrifolia is in excess of 30,000 plants in the wild. The one population in western Cuba consists of 133 individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:30000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Habitats of Z. integrifolia vary from open coastal areas and sand dunes to pinelands and closed canopy oak hammocks to tropical forest. This cycad is most commonly found in soil over limestone and in sand near sea level or in dry pinelands subjected to periodic wildfires.
Generation Length (years):30

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Z. integrifolia has declined mainly due to habitat destruction for housing developments and agriculture. In the early 20th century, a large number were collected as part of a commercial starch industry.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES Appendices. In Cuba, populations are present in National Park Guanahacabibes in the Pinar del Rio province and the Ecological Reserve Varahicacos in the Matanza province. In Puerto Rico, plants are found in the Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserve near Cabo Rojo. In the Bahamas, plants are found in the Abaco National Park of Great Abaco Island. Plants also occurs in about 80 conservation areas in Florida, U.S.A., including the Everglades National Park.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Donaldson, J.S. 2006. Notes.

Donaldson, J.S. (ed.). 2003. Cycads. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cycad Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gregory, T. 2007. Email.

Hill, K.D. and Stevenson, D.W. 1998-2006. The Cycad Pages. Available at:

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World (2nd edition). Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Stevenson, D.W. 2010. Zamia integrifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T42164A10670852. . Downloaded on 23 September 2018.
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