Cercopithecus diana 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Cercopithecus diana
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Diana Monkey, Roloway Monkey, Diana Guenon
French Cercopithèque Diane
Spanish Diana
Taxonomic Notes: There are two named subspecies: C. d. diana and C. d. roloway (see Kingdon 1997; Grubb et al. 2003). Groves (2005) elevated both to full species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Oates, J.F., Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C.P.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as this species is believed to have declined by more than 30% in the course of the past 27 years (three generations) mainly as a result of habitat loss and hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the forests of Upper Guinea in West Africa, ranging from coastal south-eastern Guinea to Sierra Leone, Liberia, southern Côte d'Ivoire, and southwestern Ghana. There range may extend to Burkina Faso. There are also historical museum records and some reports of this species in Togo to the east of Lake Volta (see Campbell et al. 2008 for summary).

There are two subspecies: the subspecies C. d. diana ranges from coastal south-eastern Guinea to the River Sassandra in Côte d'Ivoire; C. d. roloway is found from the River Sassandra in the east to the River Pra in Ghana.
Countries occurrence:
Côte d'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Sierra Leone
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It appears to be a rare and declining species throughout the majority of its range, with C. d. roloway much rarer than C. d. diana in the west. In Ghana, Roloway Guenons have been steadily extirpated from both unprotected and protected areas (for example, Bia National Park) and the monkey is nearing extinction in that country if it has not disappeared already (McGraw and Oates 2007).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This largely arboreal species occurs in the canopy of primary and old secondary lowland moist forest, and riverine and gallery forest. It is rare in degraded forest, but it appears that it can survive in lightly logged forest where the canopy remains
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is generally threatened by hunting and habitat degradation and loss. The relatively large size of this species and the value of its meat and skin makes it a preferred game species. Large-scale deforestation in the region, through logging, conversion to agricultural land and charcoal production, continues to reduce the habitat available to this species (McGraw 1998; McGraw and Oates 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES and on Class A of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. They Roloway Monkey has previously been recorded from a number of protected areas across the region. However, very recent surveys failed to confirm the presence of Roloways in four reserves in western Ghana including one — Krokosua Hills Forest Reserve — believed to harbor the monkey only several years earlier. It is possible that Ankasa Resource Reserve still contains a few Roloway individuals; a thorough survey of Ankasa, and of the Dadieso Forest Reserve (where the monkey was also reported in the recent past) should be a high priority (McGraw and Oates 2007). In neighboring Côte d’Ivoire, the Roloway guenon is not known from any protected areas. Surveys formerly documented them in two forests, namely the Yaya Forest Reserve and wet forest adjacent to the Ehy Lagoon (McGraw and Oates 2007). However, field surveys made in 2004 failed to document them at additional sites in southern Côte d’Ivoire, although hunters indicate that Roloways are present in small numbers in the Parc National des Iles Ehotilé (Kone and Akpatou 2005). Further investigations are needed in the forest zone along the Togo-Ghana border to confirm or refute the presence of Roloway Monkeys in Togo (Campbell et al. 2008).

The nominate subspecies is better off than its conspecific, and occurs on Mt. Nimba, part of which is a designated World Heritage Site. To protect this primate there is a need to protect large areas of mature forest from logging and conversion to agricultural land.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.2. War, civil unrest & military exercises
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Campbell, G., Teichroeb, J. and Paterson, J. D. 2008. Distribution of Diurnal Primate Species in Togo and Bénin. Folia Primatologica 79: 15–30.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R., Groves, C. P. and Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Kone, I. and Akpatou, K. B. 2005. Recherche en Cote d’Ivoire de trios singes gravement menaces d’extinction. CEPA Magazine 12: 11–13.

McGraw, S. C. and Oates, J. G. 2007. Roloway Guenon. Primates in Peril. The world's 25 most endangered primates 2006-2008, Primate Conservation 22(8).

McGraw, W. S. 1998. Three monkeys nearing extinction in the forest reserves of eastern Cote d’Ivoire. Oryx 32(3): 233-236.

Citation: Oates, J.F., Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C.P. 2008. Cercopithecus diana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4215A10668184. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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