Cycas revoluta 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Cycadaceae

Scientific Name: Cycas revoluta Thunb.
Common Name(s):
English Fern Palm, Sago Palm
Cycas miquelii Warb.
Cycas revoluta Thunb. ssp. brevifrons Miq.
Cycas revoluta Thunb. ssp. planifolia Miq.
Cycas revoluta Thunb. ssp. prolifera Siebold & Zucc.
Cycas revoluta Thunb. ssp. robusta Messeri

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Hill, K.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Despite declines across its range, this species is still relatively common in Japan and is therefore listed as Least Concern
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widely distributed through the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan and also on the southern parts of Kyushu Island. There are reports of natural occurrences in the coastal Fujian Province of China. These have not been substantiated, although circumstantial support for these claims are strong. Recorded from sea level up to 300 m.
Countries occurrence:
Japan (Kyushu, Nansei-shoto)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:7
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is large and estimations of several hundred thousand plants have been made.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:100000-200000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Today plants occur primarily on steep to precipitous stony sites, but previously they occurred on flatter land which has since been cleared. Usually grow in exposed locations on steep limestone cliffs and rocks overhanging the shoreline, sometimes in low dense forest in heavy shade.
Generation Length (years):40

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been massive seed collecting from natural habitats and leaves are exported in large numbers for decorative purposes. Habitat has also been cleared.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Chen, J. and Stevenson, D.W. 2006. Flora of China. Available at:

Hill, K.D. 2008. The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in China. Telopea 12(1): 71-118.

Hill, K.D. and Stevenson, D.W. 1998 - 2006. The Cycad Pages. Available at:

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Osborne, R. and Tomiyama, H. 1995. Focus on Encephalartos revoluta. Encephalartos 41: 5-15.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Hill, K.D. 2010. Cycas revoluta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T42080A10622557. . Downloaded on 21 September 2018.
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