Cercocebus lunulatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Cercocebus lunulatus (Temminck, 1853)
Common Name(s):
English White-naped Mangabey, White-collared Mangabey
French Mangabey couronné
Spanish Mangabey de cuello blanco
Cercocebus atys ssp. lunulatus (Temminck, 1853)
Cercopithecus lunnulatus Temminck, 1853
Taxonomic Source(s): Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Taxonomic Notes: This species was originally assessed in 2008 as a subspecies of Cercocebus atys but is now raised to species-level. This species was also formerly treated as a subspecies of  C. torquatus.

This is an updated assessment to reflect the the promotion of the subspecies to species-level and the inclusion of information previously contained within the former species-level assessment.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2008-07-01
Assessor(s): Oates, J.F., Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C.P.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is declining rapidly and is thought to be undergoing further habitat degradation and increased pressure from hunting, particularly in Ghana. It is presumed to have declined by at least 50% over the past 27 years, although this decline may have been even more severe.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:C. lunulatus ranges through the eastern part of the range from the Nzo-Sassandra system to the Volta River ( Côte d'Ivoire). It has recently been recorded from southwestern Burkina Faso (Galat and Galat-Luong 2006) and from southwestern Ghana.
Countries occurrence:
Burkina Faso; Côte d'Ivoire; Ghana
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species has a restricted range, a patchy distribution and is not known to be abundant anywhere.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found in primary and secondary forests, gallery forest, swamp forest including mangrove and mosaic habitats in the Guinean Forest Zone. This species is largely terrestrial but will also use the forest canopy.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hunted for bushmeat.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is presumably threatened by habitat loss caused by deforestation for timber and firewood. The species is locally hunted for meat, and this is an increasingly important threat with ongoing forest fragmentation. Although they are tolerant of a wide range of habitats, hunting of this species for meat and persecution from crop raiding are major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (as Cercocebus atys). European Union listed in Appendix I.

C. lunulatus occurs in Comoe National Park but it is threatened by civil conflict and hunting; it has also been recorded from Ankasa Resource Reserve, Dadieso Forest Reserve and Yoyo Forest Reserves in Ghana, and Marahoué National Park, Dassioko Forest Reserve and Niegre Forest Reserve in Côte d’Ivoire. Many of these protected areas should be elevated to national park status.

There are captive-breeding programmes for this species in European zoos.  

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.2. War, civil unrest & military exercises
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

Galat, G. and Galat-Luong, A. 2006. Hope for the survival of the Critically Endangered white-naped managbey Cercocebus atys lunulatus: a new primate species for Burkino Faso. Oryx 40(3): 355-357.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Citation: Oates, J.F., Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C.P. 2016. Cercocebus lunulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4206A92247225. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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