Encephalartos laurentianus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos laurentianus De Wild.
Common Name(s):
English Kwango Giant Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Bösenberg, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
The species is recorded as growing in large numbers in the eastern DRC (Goode 2001) and that seed set is occurring. It has also been recorded from across the border in Angola but there is no data available on population numbers. Available data suggests that populations are stable. If there was any evidence of decline, it would probably qualify for a Vulnerable listing under criterion B1ab(v).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in an area along the border between Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Populations are restricted to the Kwango (Cuango) River valley in the vicinity of Kasongo-Lunda in the Bandundu province of the DRC and in the Uige province in Angola. Plants are also found between the Fufu and Kikasu tributaries of the Kwango. Occus between 450 and 550 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Additional data:
Number of Locations:6
Lower elevation limit (metres):450
Upper elevation limit (metres):550
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It has been reported that 'large numbers' occur in the Kasongo-Linda districts of eastern DRC.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:E. laurentianus is found in closed, humid gallery forest along the river Kwango and on open red sandstone slopes above. The vegetation type in this area is Congolian forest-savanna mosaic.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is targeted by collectors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Prain, D. 1917. Cycadaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 344-354.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos laurentianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41949A10609195. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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