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Encephalartos lehmannii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos lehmannii Lehm.
Common Name(s):
English Karoo Cycad
Synonym(s):
Encephalartos spinulosus Lehm.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Justification:
Although relatively widespread and abundant, E. lehmannii has declined in some areas by at least 20%. Plants appear to be sensitive to heavy browsing by goats and mortality of adult plants is common where goats are farmed. The species is therefore listed as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for a threatened listing under criterion A2.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This cycad species is most closely associated with the drier regions, particularly the Karoo area, of South africa. It occurs on cliffs and mountain sides in the Eastern Cape Province in the districts of Willowmore, Jansenville, Pearston, Somerset East, Kirkwood, Uitenhage and Steytlerville. It grows on the Grootrivier Mountains, the Klein Winterhoek Mountains, the Groot Bruintjieshoogte Mountains and the foothills of the Groot Winterhoek Mountains in the drainage areas of the Groot and Sundays Rivers. Occurs at altitudes ranging from 400 up to 1,000 m.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4000
Number of Locations:10-12
Lower elevation limit (metres):400
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is difficult to quantify, but E. lehmannii tends to occur in subpopulations of several hundred plants across its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5000-7000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species usually grows on sandstone hills and mountainsides amongst arid Karoo scrub vegetation. The climate in its distribution area is dry, with very hot summers. The rain falls mainly in summer and the annual rainfall is seldom higher than 350 mm.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):200

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Drought has had an affect in the past. There have been fewer coning episodes and porcupines have damaged stems in search of food. Continuous defoliation by goats results in mortality of adult plants. To a lesser degree, plants have been lost due to over-collecting by poachers.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations occur in the Greater Addo Elephant National Park and the Kuzuko Game Reserve.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Kemp, M. 1985. Focus on Encephalartos lehmannii. Encephalartos 4: 12-17.


Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos lehmannii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41934A10604117. . Downloaded on 19 November 2017.
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