|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos hildebrandtii A.Braun & C.D.Bouché|
Encephalartos hildebrandtii A.Braun & C.D.Bouché ssp. dentatus Melville
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of E. hildebrandtii originally brought together a number of scattered populations of somewhat questionable relationship. Plants from the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda are now treated as two separate species: E. ituriensis and E. whitelockii. The distinction between Melville's two varieties of E. hildebrandtii, hildebrandtii and dentatus, was based solely on cone characteristics. There is general agreement that the differences are minor and hence the two varieties are no longer recognized.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests CEPF Plant Assessment Project & Bösenberg, J.D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Beentje, H., Gereau, R., Kabuye, C., Kalema, J., Luke, Q., Lyaruu, H., Maunder, M., Mwachala, G., Ndangalasi, H., Njau, F. & Schatz, G. (East African Plants Red List Authority) & Donaldson, J.S. (Cycad Red List Authority)|
Widespread with relatively large subpopulations. However, subpopulations have been destroyed on Zanzibar and along the coast due to urban and tourism developments and expanding agricultural activities. These do not threaten the species at present, but its decline should be monitored.
Is listed as Near Threatened because although it has a large extent of occurrence the area of occupancy is much smaller and close to the threshold for Vulnerable and there is continuing decline in the severely fragmented population. If the decline continues, the population reduction could exceed 30% over three generations.Thus almost qualifies for listing under criteria A3d; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv.v).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Occurs in the coastal and near-coastal districts of Kenya and Tanzania including Zanzibar island (Tanzania). Reports of cycads from northern Mozambique may also turn out to be E. hildebrandtii. Occurs from sea level up to 600 m.|
Native:Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Occurs in many locations, and is locally abundant in places. Population size is estimated to be about 20,000 mature individuals.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Mainly found in coastal evergreen bushland and dry lowland forest, in red loams and sandy soils among grass and coral rocks.|
Appears to need shade for successful germination.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Use and Trade:||
Use of seeds as famine food in northern Kenya has in the past been shown to lead to a high incidence of liver cancer in the Boni people.
This species like all cycads is highly sought after in the horticulture trade. Plants are removed from the wild and sold to hotel developers, etc. nationally.
Habitat destruction as a result of urban expansion, coastal resort development, and agricultural expansion is having a direct impact on the species. Former large subpopulations of the species have been lost as result.
In times of famine, the stems have reportedly been used for food in Zanzibar, although it is more likely the seeds that are used, as is the case in northern Kenya (the central pith of the stem and the endosperm from the seeds is used to prepare a starchy form of bread).
Recorded from a number of protected areas including: Jozani Forest Reserve on Zanzibar, Saadani National Park, one locality within Gendagenda South Forest Reserve, and one locality within Amani Nature Forest Reserve (all Tanzania); and two localities within Arabuko Sokoke Forest Reserve (Kenya).
The species is well represented in botanical gardens and private collections worldwide.
Is listed in CITES Appendix I.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World (2nd edition). Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC.
Prain, D. 1917. Cycadaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 344-354.
Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
|Citation:||Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests CEPF Plant Assessment Project & Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos hildebrandtii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41931A10603165.Downloaded on 18 November 2017.|
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