Encephalartos delucanus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos delucanus Malaisse, Sclavo & Crosiers

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Classified as Endangered based on small population size, ongoing decline, and no known subpopulation of >250 plants. In terms of other criteria, would qualify for Vulnerable due to its relatively small range, number of localities and expected decline of at least 10% due to poor seed set. Reports indicate that plants are often too far apart for effective reproduction.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Rukwa region of western Tanzania. Populations are found in the vicinity of Mpanda, near Mount Kasima, Mount Sitebi and on the Lugala Hills. They are also found south of the Ugalla river. Recorded from 1,200 to 1,950 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Number of Locations:7
Lower elevation limit (metres):1200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1950
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:E. delucanus seems to be very dispersed and difficult to find. Heibloem (1999) reports combing known localities for several days and only finding a few individuals. The population on Mount Sitebi consists of two groups of about 20 individuals in each and the total population is estimated as less than 500 plants.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:300-500
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species grows in open Miombo (savanna) woodlands and on grassland ridges and mountain slopes.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is affected by too frequent fires, which may affect regeneration. Changes in habitat management may also threaten the security of this species. Removal by collectors is also an issue.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. This species possibly occurs in the Ugalla River Game Reserve.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Heibloem, P. 1999. Cycads of Central Africa. Publication Fund, Palm & Cycad Societies of Australia, Brisbane.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Malaisse, F., Sclavo, J.-P. and Crosiers, C. 1993. Recherches sur les Encephalartos Lehm. (Zamiaceae) d'Afrique centrale. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 62: 205-219.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos delucanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41914A10593284. . Downloaded on 17 August 2018.
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