Encephalartos barteri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos barteri Carruth. ex Miq.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Taxonomic Notes: This species has two subspecies. E. barteri ssp. barteri and E. barteri ssp. allochrous. The subspecies are quite distinct and there is a strong likelihood that E. barteri ssp. allochrous will be elevated to species status in future. The subspecies are assessed separately.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Bösenberg, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
Encephalartos barteri comprises two subspecies - E. barteri barteri, which is more widespread and numerous and has been assessed as Vulnerable, and E. barteri allochrous, which has a restricted distribution and has been assessed as Endangered. The overall assessment of Vulnerable is based on past (60 years) and future (next 30 years) population declines that are estimated to exceed 30% (three generations is 210 years).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs near the town of Tokkos on the Jos Plateau, which is in the Plateau State of central Nigeria and between Jebba and Ilorin in Nigeria, in the Borgou province and near Savalou in Benin and in the Volta river catchment area in Ghana. This cycad almost certainly occurs in Togo. Occurs between 400 and 1,400 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Benin; Ghana; Nigeria; Togo
Additional data:
Number of Locations:12
Lower elevation limit (metres):400
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Not much is known about the populations in Nigeria and Benin. C. Dalzell (pers. comm.) reported that populations in Ghana were large and healthy.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10000-15000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Plants grow on rocky slopes, in woodland savanna vegetation consisting of scattered trees and a ground flora dominated by grass. They are also found on sandstone or granite outcrops on steep slopes in tropical woodland.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species may be affected by too frequent fires which could prevent seedling growth. Plants are also removed from the wild by collectors. Part of the population was lost due to flooding when the Volga dam was built.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.10. Large dams
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Newton, L.E. 1978. A new cycad subspecies from Nigeria. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 77: 125-129.

Osborne, R. 1988. Focus on Encephalartos barteri. Encephalartos 14: 8-16.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos barteri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41912A10592388. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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